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In what way does physiology depend on anatomy?

The operation or function of a structure is dictated (promoted or prevented) by its anatomy. For example, oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged across the very thin membranes of the lungs but not across the skin.

Would you be studying anatomy or physiology if you investigated how muscles shorten? if you explored the location of the lungs in the body?

Muscle shortening is a topic of physiology. The body location of the lungs is an anatomy topic.

What level of structural organization is typical of a cytologist's field of study?

Cytologists study the cellular level of organization.

What is the correct structural order for the following terms: tissue, organism, organ, cell?

The order in the structural hierarchy is cell, tissue, organ, and organism.

Which organ system includes the bones and cartilages? which includes the nasal cavity, lungs, and trachea?

Bones and cartilages are part of the skeletal system.

What separates living beings from nonliving objects?

Living organisms are able to maintain their boundaries, move, respond to environmental changes, digest nutrients, carry out metabolism, dispose of wastes, reproduce, and grow. While inanimate objects may exhibit some of these properties, they do not exhibit all of them.

What name is given to all chemical reactions that occur within body cells?

Metabolism is the term that encompasses all the chemical reactions that occur in body cells

Why is it necessary to be in a pressurized cabin when glying at 30,000 feet?

In flight, the cabin must be pressurized because the atmosphere is thinner at high altitudes and the amount of oxygen entering the blood under such conditions may be insufficient to maintain life.

What process allows us to adjust to either extreme heat or extreme cold?

Negative feedback mechanisms allow us to adjust to conditions outside the normal temperature range by causing heat to be lost from the body (in hot conditions) and retained or generated by the boyd (in cold conditions).

When we begin to get dehydrated, we usually get thirsty, which causes us to drink fluids. is thirst part of a negative or a positive feedback control system?

Thirst is part of a negative feedback control system because it prods us to drink, which ends the thirst stimulus and returns body fluid volume to the normal range.

Why is the control mechanism shown in Figure 1.6 called a positive feedback system? what event ends this? pg 11

this is a positive feedback mechanism because it enhances the change (formation of a platelet plug) set into motion by the stimulus (damage to the blood vessel).

What is the anatomical position? why is it important that you learn this position?

the position in which a person is standing erect with feet slightly separated and palms facing anteriorly. knowing the anatomical position is important because directional terms refer to the body as if it is in this position.

The axillary and acromial regions are both in the general area of the shoulder. where specifically is each located?

Axillary region is the armpit. Acromial area is the tip of the shoulder.

What type of cut would separate the brain into anterior and posterior parts?

A frontal (coranal) section would separate the brain into anterior and posterior parts.

Joe went to the emergency room where he complained of severe pains in the lower right quadrant of his abdomen. What might be his problem?

He may have appendicitis if the pain is in the lower right quadrant of his abdomen

Of the uterus, small intestine, spinal cord, and heart, which is/are in the dorsal body cavity?

Of these organs, only the spinal cord is in the dorsal body cavity.

When you rub your cold hands together, the friction between them results in heat that warms your hands. why doesnt warming friction result during movements of the hearts, lungs, and digestive organs?

As mobile organs (heart, lungs, digestive organs) work, friction is greatly reduced by the presence of serous fluid. Serous fluid allows the surrounding serous membranes to glide easily over one another.

The correct sequence of levels forming the structural hierarchy is

C. Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal

The structural and functional unit of life is

a cell

Which of the following is a major functional characteristic of all organisms?

Movement, growth, metabolism, responsiveness.

Two of these organ systems bear the major responsibility for ensuring homeostasis of the internal environment.

Nervous system and endocrine system

in (a)-(e), a directional term [e.g., distal in (a)] is followed by terms indicating different body structures or locations (e.g., the elbow/the wrist). In each case, choose the structure or organ that matches the given directional term.

(a) distal: wrist (b) Lateral: hip bone (c) Superior: nose (d) Anterior: toes (e) Superficial: scalp

Assume that the body has been sectioned along three planes: (1) a median plane, (2) a frontal plane, and (3) a transverse plane made at the level of each of the organs listed below. which orans would not be visible in all three cases?

neither the lungs or kidneys would be visible in the median section

Relate each of the following conditions or statements to either the dorsal body cavity of the ventral body cavity.

(a)Surrounded by the bony skull and the vertebral colum: dorsal
(b)Includes the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities: ventral (c)Contains the brain and spinal cord: dorsal
(d)Contains the heart, lungs, and digestive organs: ventral

Which of the following relationships is inncorrect?

Parietal pericardium/ outer surface of heart

which ventral cavity subdivision has no bony protection?

abdominal cavity

Terms that apply to the back side of the body in the anatomical position include:

posterior; dorsal

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