Who was Jan Swammerdan?
He found that animal spirits were not involved in reflexes.
Who was Gottfried Leibniz?
-sensations are a mental process
-petite perceptions = monads
-looked at relationship between how strong a stimulus is and our contiousness of it.
What is psychophysics and who invented the term?
-i.e. breathing- we don't think about it, but wen we do, we can't stop
Who was Thomas Hobbes?
-disagreed with Descartes idea of distinct and clear
-disagreed with the idea of innate ideas
-felt sensation was a physical process
-written by Thomas Hobbes
-considers which government is best (monarchy)
-wrote after the beheading of Charles the First
Who was John Locke?
-simple ideas (based off of sensation & reflection)
-complex ideas (reflection can be used to make more complex construction)
-nothing was in the intellect that was not previously in the senses
An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding
-written by John Locke
-the way to know the world is to experience it
Primary and Seconday qualities of objects
founded by John Locke
-Primary: inherit in objects, nothing to do with us
-Secondary: require sensation (taste, sight, etc) subjective like temperature.
Who was George Berkeley?
-Esse est Percipi - to be perceived we must be experienced
-permant perseval by God
-did not believe in primary & secondary argument
-everything was a secondary quality
An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision
-written by George Berkeley
-convergence: when objects move closer to us or farther away
Who was David Hume?
-called into question the theory of cause and effect
-impressions: basic sensations, raw data of experience
-ideas: "faint copies" of impressions
- 3 laws of association: resemblance, contiguity, and cause/effect
Who was David Hartley?
-founded associatism: the mind can be understood as a complex set of ideas, related to each other by the force of the associations between them
-phycophysical dualism - sensations and ideas are correlated, not causely related
-psychophysical parallelism: considered the events separately, but operating in parallel, even structuring the book as a series of prepositions that alternated between the mind and body
-thought ideas (miniture vibrations) were less "vigrous" than sensations (vibrations
Observations on Man, His Frame, His Duty, and His Expectations
-written by Davis Hartley
-summarized the essentials of British empiricist
-dualist on mind-body question
Who was James Mill?
-mind is made up of building blocks caused by sensation
Who was John Stuart Mill?
-influences by Newton
Who was Immanuel Kant?
-used both empirical and rational thought
-lived in Konigsberg
-outraged at David Hume
-Noumenal reality: a reality that is not subjective (destined to fail, beyond our reach)
-Phenomenal reality: what is real as we experience it (objective to shoot for)
Critique of Pure Reason
Critique of Practical Reason
Critique of Judgement
-written by Immanuel Kant
-a postereori/synthetic: thoughts can only occur after experience
-a priori: derived prior to experience (rationally derived)
-Synthetic a priori: statements of fact where noncontingious statements are fixed. both empirical and rational
Who was Sir Charles Bell?
-research on control of movement
-reciprocal innervation between flexor and extensor muscles
-muscle sense: tells brain movement & conditions of our muscles
Who was Francois Magendie?
-microsurgery in animals
-spinal nerves connected in 2 places
-dorsal fibers are purely sensory (posterior roots)
-ventral nerves are motor (anterior roots)
(Bell and Magendie Law)
Who was Franz Joseph Gall?
-by examining someone's skull, you could see their mental traits
-affective (emotion) located on side, back, and top of head
-intellectual on front of skull
Who was Johann Spurzheim?
-pupil of Gall
-coined the term phrenology
Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System
-written by Franz Joseph Gall
Who was Paul Broca?
-had famous "tan" patient who suffered from motor aphasia, the inability to speak
-performed autopsy, found part of brain deterorated (language center/left frontal lobe)
Who was Pierre Flourens?
performed abletions: removal of brain tissue in a controlled way by pipetting parts out of the animal.
-the more cortical tissue you remove, the more impairment you see (used to fight phrenology)
Who were Gustav Fritsch and Edward Hitzig?
-exposed cortex's in animals and touched them with mild electrical probes to look for movement
-studied the nervous system
-conducted studies in localization
What are Leyden Jars?
Jars that have an electrode on them. Can be filled with charge if put up to a generator.
Who was Luigi Galvani?
-wanted to see if the nervous sustem operated electrically
-would probe spinal cord with electricity in frog
-invented first battery made of frog's legs
Who was Count Alessandro Volta?
-believed in multiple ways to stimulate the nervous system
-voltalic tile: stack of metal plates, 2nd type of battery
Who was Johannes Muller?
-sensory specificity: what makes one sensory system different from another
-believed signal was different in different nerves (false, all are electrical)
-his students wrote the materialist manifesto (believed that nothing but physical principles worked in physiology)
The Handbook of Human Phisiology
-written by Johannes Muller
Two Treatises on Government
-written by John Locke
-best known political event (social control)
Some Thoughts Concerning Education
-a series of letters to a friend and shows how empiricist thinking could be applied to all aspects of a child's education
-mind at birth = white paper
Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
-written by Berkeley
-attack on materialism
A Treatise of Human Nature
-written by David Hume
-tried to discover the mind's basic elements analogous to the physical atom
thinking of your house might make you think of your dog sitting by the front door (Hartley)
dog's drooling might be the result of it associating your smiling face
requires knowledge of the parts before one can know the whole (most British philosophers)
the whole over its elements, parts have no meaning without first knowing the whole
written by John Stuart Mill
The Subjection of Women
-written by John Stuart Mill
classic feminist essay
A System of Logic, Ratiocinative, and Inductive, Being a Connected View of the Principles of Evidence, and the Methods of Scientific Investigation
-written by John Stuart Mill
-wanted to create a scientific approach to psychology
-wanted to inculde inductive logic
-called them the methods of agreement, difference, and concomintant variation
Method of Agreement
looks for a common element in several instances of an event (experimental group)
Method of Difference
looks for evidence that the absense of an effect is always accompanied by the absense of a proposed cause (control group)
looks to see if changes in x are associated with changes in y
Who was Gottfried Leibniz?
-contemporary of Locke
-co-founder of calculus
-disagreed with Locke's "mind is white paper"
-proposed that a mind was like veined marble (nature/nurture)
-proposed a psychophysical parallelism solution to the mind-body problem (they work in parallel to each other, keep "pre-established harmony"
-believed awareness was an all or nothing affair
-apperception, perception, and petite perseptions
New Essays on Human Understanding
-written by Gottfried Leibniz
-a humorous response to Locke's writing
What are monads, and what are the three types?
monad- element of both physical and mental reality
rational: form essense of the human mind
sentient: found is all living non-human beings
simple: make up physical reality
Define apperception, perception, and petite perceptions:
Apperception: highest level of awareness in which we focus our attention on some information, apprehend it fully, and make it personally meaningful
Perception: middle ground
Petite perceptions: below the level of awareness, but ultimately essential for enabling higher levels of perception to occur
prior to experience
Who was Theodor Bischoff?
conducted test on the decapitated head of a criminal after execution (pain/consciousness studies) no findings
Who was Robert Whytt?
-used frogs primarily
-distinguished between voluntary and involuntary actions
The Vital and Other Involuntary Motions of Animals
-written by Robert Whytt
-based on experimental research
Hermann von Helmholtz
-student of Muller (unofficially)
-helped write the material document
-used a mathmatical formula to calculate how many calories an animal burns during different levels of exercise (helped him to define the conservation of energy)
-sensory phisolofy with vision
-claimed he could time how long a nerve signal was (with Helmholtz chronograph)
-studied nerve electricity with frog legs
by shining different lights on a wall, the spectrum of light can be seen, eye must contain 3 different kinds of color receptors: red, green, and blue. (Helmholtz)
The Theory of the Sensation of Tone as a Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music
-written by Hermann von Helmholtz
-different frequencies of sound were detected by receptors located in different places along the basilar membrane of the cochlea. (Helmholtz)
Outlines of Phrenology
-written by Spurzhein
How did Pierre Flourens fight phrenology?
1) the mind is centered in the brain
2) the mind is composed of numerous faculties, each located in specific places in the brain.
Examination of Phrenology
-written by Pierre Flourens
-used ablation to fight to attack phrenology
-proved that the cortex's act as a whole, not as parts
Who was Karl Lashley?
-verified that the cortex's act as a whole and that the amount of disability is proportional to the extent of ablation.
-referred to them as the principles of equipotentialiy and mass action respectively.
-Pavlov inspired him to become an experimental psychologist
-did studies with bats in mazes
- alternative to ablation
-implemented bu Paul Broca
-studying the behavioral and mental consequences of brain injury, or events like stokes or illness
-identifying people with some behavioral or mental disorder and examining their brains for abnormalities after death.
Who was Carl Wernicke?
-studied a group of 10 patients who had the ability to produce articulate speech, but the speech tended to be nonsensical. They also had difficulty comprehending the speech of others.
-sensory aphasia (in left temporal lobe)
Who was David Ferrier?
-identified the occipital lobe as the primary sensory area for vision and a portion of the temporal lobe as the center for hearing.
Functions of the Brain
-written by David Ferrier
-extended the localization search beyond motor functions identifying several sensory areas
Who was Louis Gratiolet?
In 1857 he was able to trace the optic nerve from the retina all the way to the back of the brain (occipital cortex)
Who was Camillo Golgi?
-produced the 1st clear pictures of the nerve cells when he immersed sections of the brain tissue in silver nitrate.
Who was Santiago Ramon y Cajal?
-believed that each neuron was a seperate unit (unlike Golgi)
Who was Sir Charles Sherrington?
-found evidence supporting the existance of gaps between neurons
-coined the term synapse
The Integrative Action of the Nervous System
-written by Sir Charles Sherrington
-about spinal reflexes
-stimuli separated in time combine to produce a response
-occurs when 2 or more adjacent points on the skin were stimulated at the same time
The Handbook of Optical Phisology
-written by Helmholtz
Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence
-written by Karl Lashley
-used to designate the apparent capacity of any intact part of a functional area to carry out
Law of mass action
-the efficiency of performance of an entire complex function may be reduced in proportion to the extent of brain injury within an area.
Who was Edward Hering?
-when we fix our eyes on one color, and then look at white, we see the contrast color in the shape of the original color.
-said that colors operate in an opponent process.
On the Sensations of Tone
-written by Helmholtz
-THE text for auditory
-the longer the wavelength, the longer the pitch
-timbre is a product of vibrations that are occurring with in the instrument (only in acoustics) resonance
-bass affects wobbly objects more (like people)
-treble affects solid tight objects more (like glass)
-inside of the cochlea, inside of the ear is the basilar membrane
-if it is dissected, it is a trapezoid
-as you go from the wide to the narrow end, the object becomes more stiff
Emil du Bois Reymond
Student of Muller
Pioneer on nerves generating electricity
One of the student who wrote the materialist manifesto