Advertising and Promotion -- Chapter 5

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Chapter 5 Michael Belch 8th Edition

communication

the passing of information, the exchange of ideas, or the process of establishing a commonness or oneness of though between a sender and a receiver

source

the sender - the person or organization that has information to share with another person or a group of people

communications process

Source/sender → encoding → channel message → decoding → receiver

encoding

involves putting thoughts, ideas, or information into a symbolic form

message

contains the information or meaning the source hopes to convey - may be verbal or nonverbal, oral or written, or symbolic.

semiotics

studies the nature of meaning and asks how our reality—words, gestures, myths, signs, symbols, products/services, theories - acquire meaning. - every marketing message has three components: Object, sign/symbol, and an interpreted message.

channel

method by which the communication travels from the source or sender to the receiver

personal channels

direct interpersonal (face-to-face) contact with target individuals or groups

word of mouth communication

social channels of communication such as friends, neighbors, associates, co-workers, or family members

non personal channels

those that carry a message without interpersonal contact between sender and receiver

mass media

nonpersonal channels of communication that allow a message to be sent to many individuals at one time

reciever

the person with whom the sender shares thoughts or information

decoding

the process of transforming the senders message back into thought

field of experience

refers to the person who receives the message's experiences, perceptions, attitudes, and values he or she brings to the communication situation

noise

unplanned distortion or interference in the communications process

response

the receivers set of reactions after seeing, hearing, or reading the message

feedback

part of the receivers respons that is communicated back to the sender

levels of audience aggregation

1. individual and group audiences
2. niche markets
3. market segments
4. mass markets and audiences

AIDA model

developed to represent the stages a salesperson must take a customer through in the personal - selling process - depicts the buyer as passing successfully through attention, interest, desire, and action

Hierarchy of Effects model

shows the process by which advertising works; assumes a consumer passes through as series of steps in sequential order from initial awareness of a product or service to actual purchase

innovation adoption model

evolved from work on the diffusion of innovations - represents the stages a consumer passes through in adopting a new product or service

information processing model

developed by William Mcguire - assumes the receiver in a persuasive communication situation like advertising is an information processor or problem solver

cognitive stage

what the receiver knows or perceives about the particular product or brand

affective stage

the receivers feelings or affect level (like or dislike) for the particular brand

behavioral stage

the consumers action toward the brand - trial, purchase, adoption, or rejection

standard learning model

consists of a learn → feel → do sequence.

dissonance attribution model

do → feel → learn occurs in situations where consumers must choose between two alternatives that are similar in quality but are complex and may have hidden or unknown attributes

post purchase dissonance

anxiety the consumer may experience resulting from doubt over the purchase

selective learning

the consumer seeks information that supports the choice made and avoids information that would raise doubts about the decision

low involvement hierarchy

the receiver is viewed as passing from cognition to behavior to attitude change. This learn → do → feel sequence is thought to characterize situations of low consumer involvement in the purchase process
→ the consumer engages in passive learning and random information catching rather than active information seeking - the advertiser must recognize that a passive, uninterested, consumer may focus more on non-message elements such as music, characters, symbols, and slogans or jingles than actual message content.

informative strategy

is for highly involving products and services where rational thinking and economic considerations prevail and the standard learning hierarchy is the appropriate response model.

affective strategy

for highly involving/feeling purchases - advertising for these types of products should stress psychological and emotional motives such as building self-esteem or enhancing one's ego or self-image

habit formation strategy

for low-involvement/thinking products with such routinized behavior patterns that learning occurs most often after a trial purchase

self satisfaction strategy

for low-involvement/feeling products were appeals to sensory pleasures and social motives are important

cognitive responses

the thoughts that occur to consumers while reading, viewing, and or/hearing a communication

counter arguments

thoughts the recipient has that are opposed to the position taken in the message

support arguments

thoughts that affirm the claims made in the message

source derogations

negative thoughts about the spokesperson or organization making the claims - lead to a reduction in message acceptance

source bolsters

favorable cognitive thoughts generated toward the source of a message

ad execution related thoughts

reactions to ad execution factors such as the creativity of the ad, the quality of the visual effects, colors, and voice tones

attitude toward the ad

represents the receiver's feelings of favorability or unfavorability towards the ad

elaboration likelihood model

differences in the ways consumers process and respond to persuasive messages - Richard Petty and John Cacioppo - developed to explain the process by which persuasive communications (ads) lead to persuasion by influencing attitudes

motivation

to process the message depends on such factors as involvement, personal relevance, and individuals needs and arousal levels

ability

depends on the individuals knowledge, intellectual capacity, and opportunity to process the message

central route to persuasion

the receiver is viewed as a very active, involved participant in the communication process whose ability and motivation to attend, comprehend, and evaluate messages are high

boomerang

result in negative attitude change

peripheral route to persuasion

the receiver is viewed as lacking the motivation or ability to process information and it not likely to engage in detailed cognitive processing

framework for studying how advertising works

Advertising input (message content, media scheduling, repetition)→ filters (motivation, ability) → consumer (cognition, affect, experience) → consumer behavior (choice, consumption, loyalty, habit, etc)

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