APUSH Chapter 7&8 vocab

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APUSH Ms. Hering Period 4

Sons of Liberty

A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere. Significance:They were important because they were the foundation on which further resistance to British rule was based culminating in the Revolutionary War.

Townshend Acts

A tax that the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint and tea in 1767. Significance: Colonists protest about taxes and unfair rights.

Boston Tea Party

demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor. Significance: From this party Britain realized they need more control over the colonies. Also this is a big revolution, a small war.

Coercive Acts

This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.Significance: Britain gained more control of the colonies, and made harsh laws. However, they are making them want to rebel and be independent.

Loyalists/Tories

colonists who remained loyal to England; they often were older, better educated people who were members of the Anglican Church. The British hoped to use them as a pacification force but failed to organize them properly. Significance: when fighting the revolution war, the loyalists did not help at all, in fact they helped the british to fight.

Patriots/ Whigs

American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won. These are a younger generation of colonists, they want to have freedom and be an independent nation, so they fought for the colonies against britain, they are heroes on the us history.

First Continental Congress

Delagates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain and to promote independence. Significance: the first concerted effort of American colonies to unite under a common cause towards secession from the British Crown.

Yorktown

The last major battle of the war in which Charles Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington. The French helped us. The was over, and colonists had won! Significance: it was the last war of the american revolution, yorktown ended the war!

second Continental Congress

They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence. Significance: The Congress adopted the Declaration, acted as the government for the colonies during the war, raised an army and navy, approved the creation of the Articles of Confederation, and negotiated the peace with Great Britain.

Social Contract

the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others. Significance: It was important because it provided influential radical arguments and, more importantly, extraordinarily powerful images and phrases, which were widely cited during the French Revolution.

George Washington

American commander-in-chief; first president, set precedents for future presidents, put down Whiskey Rebellion (enforced Whiskey Tax), managed first presidential cabinet, carefully used power of executive to avoid monarchial style rule. Significance: He was the first president of united states, fought for the revolution, a true hero on the us history.

Patrick Henry

An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death." Henry served as Governor of Virginia from 1776-1779 and 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution. Significance: He gave a inspirational speech, he said " give me liberty or give me death.

Lexington-Concord

The first battle of the Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts. Significance: started the revolution, showed that the colonists were able to defeat the British army.

Sugar Act

(1764) British deeply in debt partly to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors. Significance: it's what made the colonists want to have more independent, it's basically what changed America.

Boston Massacre

British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution. Significance: The massacre drew attention to the issues between the colonists and the British style of rule, and colonial sentiment was turned against King George III.

Intolerable Acts

in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses. Significance: The Intolerable Acts were a wake up call for the colonies. The acts included the closing of Boston harbor and the take over of all governmental activities by England.

Continental Army

The official army of the colonies, created by second continental congress and led by George Washington. Significance: the army fought for independence of the US people. It was the Americans' own army!

Salutary Neglect

British colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II. relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs by royal bureacrats contributed significantly to the rise of American self government. Significance: Salutary Neglect let the United States grow and mature on its own in order to become a more powerful independent nation.

Committees of Correspondence

Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. Significance: They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.

Thomas Paine

American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809) Significance: In 1776, he published the pamphlet Common Sense, a strong defense of American Independence from England. It won over many to the cause of Independence.

Thomas Jefferson

He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States. Significance: He drafted the Declaration of Independence, which declared United States of America was an independent nation.

Benedict Arnold

He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. Significance: He is the most famous traitor in American history.

John Jay

United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829) Significance: John Jay was the Chief Justice of the state Supreme Court before assuming the Presidency of Congress in late 1778.

Crispus Atticus

once of the 5 colonists killed in the Boston Massacre. Atticus was a runaway slave who it is said led the protest against the Townshend Acts that resulted in the bloody conflict with the British soldiers. Significance: He was important to the revolutionary war because of how the patriots and the Sons of Liberty spread the news of the Boston Massacre and the deaths of the men including Attucks throughout the colonies which outraged Americans in all the colonies not just Massachusetts and led to increased support for the revolution from all 13 colonies..

Stamp Act

an act passed by the British parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents. Significance: It was the proverbial straw that broke the camels back and lead to the formation of the committees of correspondence during the colonial period that ultimately lead to the revolution.

Declaratory Act

Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, the Declaratory Act stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases. Most colonists interpreted the act as a face-saving mechanism and nothing more. Parliament, however, continually interpreted the act in its broadest sense in order to legislate in and control the colonies. Significance: The Declaratory Act was passed attempting to regulate the behavior of colonies & cancel the majority of effects of the Stamp Act.

Tea Act

Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants. Significance: led to the Boston Tea Party.

Common Sense

January 15,1776 Common Sense published. Written by Thomas Paine.It stated that it was common sense to rebel against King George. America should break all ties with Britain. It sold over 100,000 copies. Significance: called for the unity of the colonists, " stop pretending being loyal, just fight. "

Natural Rights

Rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governments, which include life, liberty, and property. The concept of natural rights was central to English philosopher John Locke's theories about government and was widely accepted among America's Founders. Significance: gained the desire of being independent by the colonists. they want their humane rights.

Mercenaries

foreign soldiers who fought for money. Significance: the British hired the mercenaries to fight during the revolution war.

Marquis de Lafayette

He was very rich and noble when he arrived in America at the age of 19 years old. He believed in the liberty that the Americans were fighting for and asked to help. He became a general on Washington's staff and fought hard. He was known as "the soldier's friend," and is buried in france but his grave is covered with earth from Bunker Hill. Significance: He helped the patriots and spied on Charles Cornwallis (British captain) and found out their plans with the help of a Yorktown spy, James Armistead. Later James Lafayette.

John Adams

A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States. Significance: John Adams was important because he was influencal in obtaining our freedom from the rule of England. He helped formulate the Bill of Rights and had input into the wording of the Constitution. He served as second President of the United States of America.

John Locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property. Significance: John Locke's acomplishments in political philosophy later influenced the founding fathers of the United States such as Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton.

Samuel Adams

Samuel Adams played a key role in the defense of colonial rights. He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty and suggested the formation of the Committees of Correspondence. Adams was crucial in spreading the principle of colonial rights throughout New England and is credited with provoking the Boston Tea Party. Significance: Sam Adams was important because he was a guy that was not afraid to get his hands dirty. He represented the common guy but also knew Americas affluent needed to be involved in the revolution. He was the one that also convinced his cousin John Adams to join congress and John was the legal beagle behind America claiming independence.

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