Histology - Cartilage & Bones

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UNTHSC - Upper Extremities Anatomy Exam 2

Cartilage types

1. Fibrocartilage
2. Elastic Cartilage
3. Hyaline cartilage

Cartilage matrix

40% fibers - Collagen & Elastin
60% ground substance - Glycosaminoglycans - Chondroitin sulfate & Hyaluronic acid

Cells of cartilage

1. Chondroblasts
2. Chondrocytes

Hyaline cartilage location

Nose, upper respiratory passage, costal, articular (on leg joints)

Hyaline cartilage

1. Homogenously staining matrix
2. Basophilic matrix - Collagen II
3. Low cell : matrix ratio
4. Cells evenly distributed
5. Perichondrium

Perichondrium - Inner layer

1. Collagen fibers
2. Undifferentiated Mesenchymal Cells
3. Capillaries

Perichondrium - Outer layer

1. Collagen fibers
2. Fibroblasts
3. Larger Blood Vessels

Chondroblast

1. Spindle-shaped
2. Small Oval to Round Nucleus
3. Basophilic Cytoplasm
4. Little Distance Between Cells

Chondrocyte

1. Rounded or Angular
2. Small Round Nucleus
3. Less Basophilic Cytoplasm
4. Larger Distance Between Cells
5. Smooth Surface Under LM

Growth of Cartilage

1. Appositional
2. Interstitial (Mitosis & Matrix synthesis)

Elastic cartilage location

1. Pharyngo-typanic tubes
2. Pinna of ear
3. Epiglottis
4. Certain laryngeal cartilages

Elastic cartilage

1. Elastic fibers in matrix
2. Acidophilic matrix
3. High cell : matrix ratio
5. Perichondrium

Fibrocartilage location

1. Rim around ball & socket joints
2. Intervertebral discs
3. Pubic symphysis
4. Miniscus of knee
5. Insertion of Achilles tendon

Fibrocartilage

1. Collagen fibers in matrix
2. Acidophilic matrix - Collagen I
3. Little amorphous matrix
4. Linear arrangement of cells
5. No perichondrium

Function of Bone

1. Locomotion
2. Protection
3. Mineral reservoir

Bone

1. Osseous connective tissue - Cells & Intercellular matrix
2. Types - Spongy/Cancellous & Compact/Dense
3. Periosteum
4. Endosteum

Intercellular matrix

1. Homogenous
2. Ordered structure
3. Components - Organic/Inorganic

Organic matrix

1. 35%
2. Collagenous fibers
3. Amorphous ground substance (5%) - Gllycosaminoglycans & Glycoproteins

Inorganic matrix

1. 65%
2. Hydroxyapatite crystals
3. Citrate, carbonate
4. Na, Mg, Mn
5. Cl
6. Lamellae - parallel fibers w/ lamellae, 90* angel w/ adjacent fibers

Osteon

Circular, functional unit of bone: Contains nerve & blood supply
1. Haversian canal
2. Concentric lamellae
3. Collagen fibers

Lacunae

Contains active osteocytes

Periosteum

1. Fibrous sheath
2. Outer layer - collagen & elastic fibers; fibroblasts; larger blood vessels
3. Inner layer - loosely arranged collagen fibers; osteoprogenitor cells; capillaries; osteoblasts

Sharpey's fibers

Anchor periosteum to outer circumferential lamellae

Endosteum

1. Delicate layer
2. Lines Marrow cavity
3. Reticular Tissue with Osteogenic Potencies

Compact bone

1. Regular arrangement of lamellae
2. Haversian/Volkman's canals
3. Haversian system - 5-15 concentric lamellae; osteon; unit of structure

Spongy bone

1. Network of Trabecular
2. Trabeculae composed of lamellae, lacunae, osteocytes and canaliculi
3. Woven bone (immature)

Development and Growth of Bone

1. Canalicular system
2. Vascular
3. Only appositional growth
4. Bone is not static

Bone cells

1. Osteoprogenitor cells
2. Osteoblasts
3. Osteocytes
4. Osteoclasts

Osteoprogenitor cell

1. Spindle shaped
2. Pale oval nucleus
3. Pale cytoplasm

Osteoblast

1. Synthesize fibers & ground substance
2. Squamous, cuboidal, columnar
3. Polarized nucleus
4. Basophilic cytoplasm
5. Close apposition
6. Continuous layer
7. Originates from osteoprogenitor cells

Osteocyte

1. Mature cell of osteoblast
2. Lacunae, surrounded by matrix
3. Flattened, oval
4. Oval nucleus
5. Acidophilic
6. Cytoplasmic processes in canaliculi

Osteoclast

1. Bone resorption
2. Multinucleated
3. Acidophilic
4. Brush border
5. Occur singly
6. Surface depressions - Howship's Lacunae
7. Originates from monocytes

Types of Bone Development

1. Intramembranous
2. Endochondral

Intramembranous Bone Development

1. Skull bones
2. Differentiation of mesenchymal sheet - osteogenic cells & osteoblasts
3. Secretion of osteoid
4. Incorporation of osteoblasts, transform to osteocytes
5. Mineralization of matrix
6. Layer of osteoblasts
7. Cancellous bone
8. Compact bone
9. Replacement of woven bone with lamellar bone

Endochondral Bone Formation

1. Long bones
2. Cartilage model with perichondrium
3. Periosteal Bone Ring or Collar
4. Periosteum
5. Diaphysis Center Changes - Cells hypertrophy; blood vessels invade through periostial bud
6. Primary center of ossification
7. Periosteal collar thickens

Zones of Endochondral Bone Formation

1. Resting/Reserve zone
2. Zone of Proliferation/Matrix formation
3. Zone of maturation
4. Zone of calficiation/retrogression
5. Zone of ossification (metaphysis)

Secondry centers of ossification

1. Birth
2. Epiphysis
3. Ossification spreads peripherally - articular surfaces; epiphyseal plate/disc
4. Growth of cartilage

Types of Bone

1. Immature (Woven) - Compact & Cancellous
2. Mature (lamellar) - Compact & Cancellous

Substances which act on bone

1. Adrenal corticoids
2. Calcitonin - lowers calcium
3. Vit. D
4. Estrogens
5. Growth hormone
6. Parathyroid hormone - raises calcium
7. Prostaglandins
8. Thyroxine

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