triglycerides sterols phospholipids
Name three categories of lipids.
All Cs on the fatty acid are bound to H, solid at room temperature, higher melting point
Name three ways saturated fats vary from unsaturated fats.
linoliec and alpha linolenic
What are the two main categories of essential fatty acids?
What is the process that makes some fatty acids rancide?
double bonds are less stable than single bonds; OR carbon is available to bond with oxygen; OR oxidation
Why are some fatty acids susceptible to rancidity?
fatty acids glycerol monoglycerides
Digested lipids are broken down to form what three components?
Chylomicron, VLDL, LDL, HDL
Name the four categories of lipoproteins.
more protein higher density
What is the effect of the amount of protein in a lipoprotein on its density? Density determines function.
Only glycerol can be used to make glucose
Can fatty acids and or glycerol be used to form glucose?
What form of cholesterol is the good kind?
20 to 35%
What is the AMDR for fats?
<10% or 1 gram
What is the recommendation for essential fatty acids for those diagnosed with heart disease (gm/day)?
To decrease the risk of CVD, how much cholesterol should one consume per day (mg)?
What type of fat is formed during hydrogenation?
The majority of fat substitutes are based on which macronutrient?
high blood pressure smoking physical activity
What are three controllable risk factors to prevent heart disease?
HDL >60 LDL <100 TG<150 Cholesteral <200
What are the desirable levels (mg/dl) for the blood lipid profile?
Proteins are made up of chains of what?
Nitrogen makes proteins different
What is the difference between peptides and proteins? peptides have three AA and shorter chains, and proteins have hundreds to thousands linked together and have longer chains
chains of amino acids of peptides and proteins
What elements make up protein?
Peptide bond forms by condensation and are broken by hydrolysis
What is the difference between condensation and hydrolysis?
Must be consumed in foods because the body cannot make them
Define essential amino acids.
Cannot be synthesized due to illness or lack of necessary precursors.
Define conditionally essential amino acids.
Can be synthesized in the body
Define non-essential amino acids.
Where in the body are proteins absorbed?
amino acid pool
The amount of amino acids available; limited but has many uses. This describes what?
_______ is the continual degradation and synthesizing of a protein.
amine group is removed
During the first deaminatioin, what is the fate of the amino group?
three functions of protein
Maintains body tissue, transports nutrients, provides structural and mechanical support.
positive nitrogen balance
A body that retains more nitrogen than it needs to incorporate into tissue that aid growth; babies, children teenagers, pregnant women.
pregnant women, children, adolescents, athletes
Who might be in positive nitrogen balance?
Who might be in equilibrium?
medical trauma, unhealthy diet
What might cause a person be in negative nitrogen balance?
traits of high quality protein
Digestible, contains all essential amino acids, provides sufficient protein to synthesize nonessential amino acids. what does this describe?
Considered a higher quality, usually animal source, contain all nine essential amino acids. What does this describe?
Low in one or more essential amino acids, usually plant source. What does this describe?
10 to 35
What is the AMDR (%) for protein for individuals over the age of 18?
What is the RDA (g/kg) for protein for individuals over the age of 18?
What food sources contain incomplete proteins?
What food sources contain complete proteins?
What nutrients are inadequate in the diet of an individual with Kwashiorkor?
Marasmus can result in a severe deficiency of ________ ?
Cs form a double bond with each other instead of binding to H
How do Cs of fatty acid bond in UNSATURATED fats?
Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are a variation of what kind of fat?
_________ fatty acid has one double bond and more room because of the double bond.
polyunsaturated fatty acid
What is PUFA?
This fatty acid is liquid at room temperature.
______ fatty acid has a low melting point.
All Cs an the fatty acid are bound to H - is a characteristic of __________ fatty acid?
The fatty acid where the first double bond is between the 3rd and 4th C from the omega end.
The fatty acid where the first double bond is between the 6th and 7th C from the omega end.
Saturated fatty acids have ____ double bond(s).
Monounsaturated fatty acids have ____ double bond(s).
two or more
Polyunsaturated fatty acids have ____ double bond(s).
_________ do not spoil or go rancid very fast.
What makes proteins different?
negative nitrogen balance
A body that has an increased need for kcalories and protein; medical trauma, unhealthy diet.
equilibrium nitrogen balance
Nitrogen intake is equal to nitrogen excreted as urea in the urine; healthy adults.