What are the functions of bones?
Support, Movement, Protection of organs, mineral storage, and blood-cell formation
What is made up of the bone matrix?
2/3 Calcium phosphate, 1/3 collagen fibers, and 2-3% of cells make up bone tissue
What cells are found in mature bone?
Osteocytes, Osteoblasts, Osteoprogenitor cells, and Osteoclasts
What does osteoctyes do?
Maintain bone tissue
What does osteoblasts do?
responsible for bone formation, produce osteoid
What does osteoprogenitor cells do?
Divides and differentiates to form new osteoblasts
What does osteoclasts do?
performs osteolysis (degeneration of bone)
What are the two types of bone?
compact and spongy
What is the composition of compact bone?
Dense and solid
What is the composition of spongy bone?
Open network of struts and plates(trabeculae)
What is an osteon?
Consists of lamellae of compact bone tissues that surround a central canal (haversian canal)
What is canaliculi?
Microscopic canals fromed by osteocytes
What is an osteocyte?
Star-shaped cell, most abundant in compact bone
What is osteogenesis?
What is ossification?
Replacement of connective tissue into bone.
What is calcification?
Process of depositing calcium salts into tissues.
What is the process of ossification?
Connective tissue is invaginated with blood vessles which bring minerals like calcium salts which help to calcify the tissue into bone.
What are the classifications of bones?
Long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, pneumatized bones, and sesamoid bone
What does a trabecula contain?
Several layers of lamellae, osteoctyes, and osteons
How does spongy bone receive its nurtrients?
From capillaries om the endostenum, that surrounds trabecula
What are the two ends and middle of a bone called?
Epiphyses (ends) and Diaphysis (Shaft)
What is the metaphysis?
Connecting region between the epiphyses and disphysis
What are the two membranes of bone?
Periosteum (Outer covering) and Endosteum (Innel lining)
What is the medullary cavity?
hollow cavity filled with yellow marrow
What is diploë?
A layer of spongy bone sandwiched between 2 layers of compact bone
What bones contain bone marrow but no marrow cavity?
Flat, short, and irregular bones
What makes up the organic components of bone tissue?
Cells, Fibers, and Ground Substance (35%)
What makes up the inorganic components of bone tissue?
Hydroxyapatites (mineral crysals primarily calcium phosphates)