Unit 2: Atlantic Revolutions

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1. Explain the ideas of the social contract and its influence on the Atlantic Revolutions 2. Explain the importance of natural rights to the Atlantic Revolutions and the movements that they inspired (feminism, abolitionism, etc.)

popular sovereignity

authority derived from the people rather than from God or tradition

John Locke (1632-1704)

English philosophe (1632-1704) whose book Two Treatises on Government (1689) argued in favor of the social contract theory of government based on the protection of natural rights. Inspired the revolutionaries of the Atlantic revolutions and gave them justification for creating new governments

social contract

John Locke's idea, an agreement between a society and a government. Society agrees to follow the rules or be punished, thus giving the government the authority to make and enforce laws. The government agrees to protect our natural rights

liberty

an idea the Enlightenment that sparked revolutions, the idea that people can do what they want

American Revolution (1775-1787)

began when British took away liberties Americans had come to expect in their evolved society

French Revolution (1789-1815)

a period of extreme change in French society, experimentation with Enlightment ideas

Haitian Revolution (1791-1804)

only succesful slave revolt in history, inflamed by French Revolution (French colony), gained independence from France

Spanish American Revolutions (1810-1825)

revolutions in South America shaped by previous revolutions in which states gained independence from Spain and Portugul

democracy

an idea of the Enlightenment that sparked revolutions, government system in whcih the people hold power and authority

Third Estate

legal and social class in France before the French revolution consisting of everyone who wasn't noble or a memeber of the clergy; they were the majority of the nation (98%) and paid most of the taxes, but had virtually no rights; representatives wrote Declaration of the Rights of Man

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

this document was written by the Marquis de Lafayette (third estate) at the start of the French Revolution; it laid out the principals for which the revolutionaries were fighting and became the foundation for the new French constitution; said that 'men are born and remain free and equal in rights'

Reign of Terror (1793-1794)

in the French Revolution, when thousands were killed on the guillotine

Napoleon Bonaparte

military dictator of France (1799-1815), spread ideas of revolution through conquest but repressed democracy and liberty

Toussaint Louverture

former slave who led the slave revolt in Haiti that resulted in Haitian independence

creole

people born in the Americas whose parents had come from Spain or France, in the Latin American colonies, they were the elites and ultimately the leaders of the Latin American revolutions

nativism

the idea that all free people born in the Americas were Americanos, used to convince Latin Americans to fight for independence

abolition/abolitionists

the movement to end slavery, succesful as a result of slavery being bad in secular, religious, economic, and political ways

nationalism/nationalists

the idea that every nation has its own distinct culture and deserves independence - stimulated pride in citizens bound by 'blood, culture, or common experience
causes: eroding older identities, political leaders used to unite people

civic nationalism

defines membership in the nation by living in the territory of the nation; but others could become members of a culture

racial nationalism

Type of nationalism that developed in Germany (among other places), which defined membership in the nation by excluding some who were perceived not to have the same ancestry.

feminism

the movement for women's rights and equality to men, made women have access to schools, jobs, and voting booths

nation

a kind of human community believed to have a distinct culture and territory and requiring sovereignty

Olympe de Gouges

French feminist who wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman in 1791 and encouraged women to seek the rights promoted by the Enlightenment and French Revolution

Atlantic Revolutions

1775-1825, many areas of the Atlantic world (North America, South America, Haiti and parts of Europe) had political revolutions - in the Americas, new states were created as colonists fought for independence from European colonial powers, and in Europe, the French Revolution initiated a decade of change in which France uses Enlightenment ideas.

State

a government that exercises sovereignty over a population in a defined territory

Sovereignty

the authority to mae and enforce lasw with complete independence from other states or organizations

Empire

a kind of state in which one ethnic group controls an ethnically diverse population, usually in a larger territory

City-state

a kind of state with any government, usually with a small and one-ethnic population consisting of a city and the surrounding territory

Nation-state

a kind of state with any government, a population of a nation in any size territory

life

the right to live

property

the right to own things without them being taken, the right to own what you produce

natural rights

rights that cannot be taken away, we have them because we are human: life, liberty, property

republic

a government system that France became as a result of the Revolution

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

leading feminist who paraphrased Declaration of Independence and published Women's Bible

English Civil War

a conflict between supporters of King Charles I and Parliament over who had the authority to rule England

Glorious Revolution

when King James 1 peacefully left England, allowing William and Mary to take the throne after signing the English Bill of Rights

Stuart dynasty

the English dynasty that tried to behave like absolute monarchs in the 17th century. one king got his head cut off, and the last was driven out of England in 1688 when his son was born and baptized Catholic.

English Bill of Rights

document William and Mary sign before taking throne creating a constitutional monarchy in which Parliament and monarchy share authority and giving citizens certain rights

William and Mary

married monarchs that signed the English Bill of Rights, part of Stuart Dynasty

Absolutism

monarch has absolute power, follows Descending Model of Authority

Parliament

legislative branch of English government
the English representative law-making institution that opposed royal authority in the 17th century English civil wars

Constitutional monarchy

a kind of government in which Parliament and monarch share authority and the monarch has rules

cash crop

a crop grown to be sold

staple crop

a crop grown to be eaten

sugar

an important cash crop, grown in Haiti before the Hatian Revolution

Seven Years' War

war between Britain and France over land in North America

Patriotism

love for one's country

dictatorial impunity

dictators can't be punished, a revolution is the only way to change the government

Simon Bolivar

the George Washington of Latin America, he led many of the Spanish colonies to rebel against Spain, but he failed to unite them in a United States of South America

Declaration of Independence

this document was written mostly by Thomas Jefferson, and it argued that the North American colonists were justified in rebelling against England because the English kind had take away their rights

constitution

it defines the limits of a governments authority

legislative

the branch of government that makes laws

executive

the branch of government that puts laws into effect, carries them out

judicial

the branch of government that judges where the laws have been broken

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