Endocrine System

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MCAT based test for the endocrine system

Folicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Stimulates follicle maturation; spermatogenesis (source: Anterior pituitary)

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

Stimulates ovulation;testosterone synthesis (source: Anterior pituitary)

AdrenoCorticoTropic Hormone (ACTH)

Tropic --> Stimulates adrenal cortex to make and secrete glucocorticoids (source: Anterior Pituitary)

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Stimulates the thyroid to produce thyroid hormones (source: Anterior Pituitary)

Prolactin

Direct --> Stimulates milk production & secretion (source: Anterior Pituitary)

Endorphins

Inhibits the perception of pain in the brain (source: Anterior pituitary)

Growth hormone

Direct --> Stimulates bone and muscle growth/lipolysis (source: Anterior pituitary)

Oxytocin

Stimulates uterine contractions during labour; milk secretion during lactation (source: Hypothalmus; stored in posterior pituitary)

Vasopressin (ADH)

Stimulates water reabsorption in kidneys (source: Hypothalmus; stored in posterior pituitary)

Hypothalamus

Part of the forebrain; located directly above the pituitary gland

Anterior pituitary

Anterior part of the small trilobed pituitary gland lying at the base of the brain. Synthisizes both direct hormones (directly stimulate their target organs) and tropic hormones (stimulate other endocrine glands to release hormones)

Glucocorticoids

Binds with GR receptors for glucose metabolism & to increase and maintain normal concentrations of glucose in blood. (source: Adrenal cortex) *Stimulated by adrenocorticotropic hormones from the anterior pituitary*

Thyroid hormones (T4, T3)

Stimulates metabolic activity (source: Thyroid)

Calcitonin

Decreases (tones down) blood calcium level (source: Thyroid)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Increases the blood calcium level (source: Parathyroid)

Parathyroid glands

Four small pea-shaped structures embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid

Thyroid gland

A bilobed structure located on the ventral surface of the trachea. It produces and secretes hormones necessary for growth and neurological development in children.

Adrenal gland

Situated on top of the kidneys and consists of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla.

Glucocorticoids

Increase blood glucose level and decrease protein synthesis (source: Adrenal cortex)

Mineralocorticoids

Increases water reabsorption in the kidneys (source Adrenal cortex) *Note - Vasopressin from the hypothalmus stimulates water reabsorption in the kidneys.*

Adrenal medulla

Specialized sympathetic nerve cells that secrete hormones into the circulatory system

Epinephrine & Norepinephrine

(AKA adrenaline) Increases blood glucose level and heart rate (source: Adrenal medulla)

Pancreas

Both an exocrine organ and an endocrine organ.

Exocrine glands

Glands that secrete their hormones into ducts.

Glucagon

Stimulates conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver, increases blood glucose (source: Pancreas)

Insulin

Lowers blood glucose by stimulating the uptake and glycogen storage of glucose by muscle & adipose cells (source: Pancreas)

Testosterone

Maintains male secondary sexual characteristics (source: Testes)

Estrogen

Maintains female secondary sexual characteristics (source: Ovaries/Placenta)

Progesterone

Promotes growth and maintenance of the endometrium (source: Ovaries/Placenta)

Endometrium

Inner membrane of the mammalian uterus.

Pineal gland

Tiny structure at the base of the brain.

Melatonin

Unclear in humans - circadian rhythms? (source: Pineal gland)

Atrial natriuretic peptide

Involved in osmoregulation (pressure of bodily fluids) and vasodilation (widening of blood vessels) (source: Heart)

Thymosin

Stimulates T lymphocyte development (source Thymus)

Thymus

An organ located in the upper anterior portion of the chest cavity just behind the sternum.

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)

Preserves the corpus luteum during the first trimester of pregnancy. Pregnancy tests usually test for this hormone in urine (source: Blastocyst/Placenta)

T cells or T lymphocytes

A type of white blood cell which play a central role in cell-mediated immunity

Antibody

Gamma globulin proteins that are found in blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrates, and are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses.

Antigen

A substance that prompts the generation of antibodies and can cause an immune response

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