CHAPTER 8 ANATOMY

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NEUROMUCSLEAR REFLEX

A REFLEX ARC CONSISTS OF?

1.RECEPTOR
2.SENSORY NEURON
3.MOTOR NEURON
4.EFFECTOR ORGAN

RECEPTORS

ARE SPECIALIZED CELLS OR ORGANS THAT TRANSDUCE INFORMATION FROM THE EXTERNAL OR INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT INTO NEURAL IMPULSES

EXTEROCEPTOR RECEPTOR

Are sensitive to stimuli from the external enviroment are located close to the surface of the body.
(outside site)

interoceptor receptors

are sensitive to stimuli from the internal environment.
(inside the body)

interoceptors may be divided into 2 categories what are the?

visceroceptors and proprioceptors

visceroceptors

receives impulses from the viscera. (organs) heart lungs ext.

proprioceptors

receives impulses from tissues directly associated with musculoskeletal movement and position. ( joint position in space)

neuromuscular spindles

are embedded in the bellies of muscles and are stretch sensitive responding to stretch with signals that tell the muscle to contract- to prevent the muscle from over streching.

golgi tendon organs

responds to touch!! Its in the tendons at the muscuo-tendonus junctions. they tell the muscles to relax- to protect the tendon from being pulled to tightly.

joint and skin proprioceptors

(around the joint) surrounds joint capsules and under the skin. they responed to pressure and send information about joint position to the central nervous system. (mostly the cerebellum of the brain.)

labyrinthine proprioceptors

are in the inter ear- and are essential for balance and equilibrium. inter ear is our balance!!

receptors that are stimulated from the outside environment are called?

its called exteroceptors

interoceptors consist of

visceroceptors and proprioceptors

types of proprioceptors include?

1.neuromuscular spindles
2.goli tendon organs
3.joint proprioceptors
4.labyrinthine proprioceptors
5. SENSORY NEURONS (afferent)
6. motor neuron (efferent)

sensory neurons (afferent)

are unipolar and cell bodies.Located in the dorsal root ganglia. There axons enter the dorsal horn of the spinal cord- where they synapse with either association neurons or motor neurons.

motor neuron (efferent)

this single type of neuron may supply from 10-2000 muscles fibers. It deprnds on the degree of fine motor control needed.

neuromuscular juction

the point of contact between the neuron and muscle fiber.

a sensory neuron is also called?

afferent

a motor neuron is also called?

efferent

intrafusal fibers

are specialized muscle fibers capable of partial contraction.

tendon reflexes

are triggered by golgi tendon organs located in tendons close to where they join the muscles.

when a intrafusal fiber is stimulated the muscle is told to?

contract

when a golgi tendon organ is stimulated the muscle is told to?

relax?

stretch reflex

intrafusal fibers and spindle fibers, a sensory neuron alerts a motor neuron to tell the quadriceps to contract, or shorten this is called

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