Where rivers flow into the sea and salt and fresh waters mix.Waters of most rivers and streams eventually empty into the oceans. As rivers reach the sea, sediments drop into the quiet water.
Form in the upper reaches of the mouth.
When silt and mud accumulations become high enough to be exposed at low tide.Found in sheltered areas (i.e. estuaries)
Affected by interaction of freshwater and saltwater. Currents vary with the season.
Fluctuates through the season.Heated by the Sun and inflowing and out flowing currents.
Formed by mixing water of different salinities and temperatures.
Fringe type of wetland.Structure dictated by tides and salinity.Twice daily plants on the outmost fringes are submerged in salty water and then exposed to full sun.
salt marsh cord grass
salt marsh hay grass, spike grass and short form of salt marsh cord grass
Normal Low Tide
Muddy area without much if any plant life.
Dominated by tall salt marsh cordgrass.Dark green in color and up to three meters tall.Hollow tubes leading from leaf to root to deal with anaerobic mud. Excretes salt on leaves
Contain salt meadow cordgrass and spike grass. About 5 cm above mean high water mark.
Contains black needlerush and black grass.
Contain shrubs such as marsh elder and goundsel.Upland fringe contains bayberry and sea holly.
Form a series of drainage channels that carry tidal waters back out to sea.Contain mud algae (diatoms and dinoflagellates).
Buried half in/half out of mud,Closes at low tide/opens and filter feeding at high tide.
Run across the marsh at low tide, has both lungs and gills.Burrow in the mud and they are omnivores. Male has the big pincher and it is used to attract a mate.
inland depressions containing standing water, small bodies of water so shallow that rooted plants can grow over much of the bottom.
inland depressions containing standing water, may be so large that they mimic marine environments.
Formed when silt, driftwood, and other debris deposited in beds of slow-moving streams dam up water behind them.
Light reaches the bottom. Rooted plants grow here. Richest diversity of life.Shallow water has emergent vegetation such as rushes, sedges, reeds, and cattails.Deeper water has water lilies.
Open water-extends to the depth of light penetration. Phyto and zooplankton and nekton.
Very little life-some fish, some plankton, and organisms such as water fleas. Zooplankton may migrate during part of the day.Depends on rain of organic material from the limnetic zone for energy. Limited light penetration.
Bottom, place of decomposition.