Chp 8: Joints
| The amount of movement permitted by a particular joint is the basis for the functional|
classification of joints.
|All joints permit some degree of movement, even if very slight.||FALSE|
|Hinge joints permit movement in only two planes.||FALSE|
|Synovial fluid is a viscous material that is derived by filtration from blood.||TRUE|
|The articular surfaces of synovial joints play a minimal role in joint stability.||TRUE|
| The major role of ligaments at synovial joints is to help direct movement and restrict|
|The only movement allowed between the first two cervical vertebrae is flexion.||FALSE|
|Movement at the hip joint does not have as wide a range of motion as at the shoulder joint.||TRUE|
| A person who has been diagnosed with a sprained ankle has an injury to the ligaments that|
attach to that joint.
| A movement of the forearm in which the palm of the hand is turned from posterior to|
anterior is supination.
|The wrist joint can exhibit adduction and eversion movements.||FALSE|
|Cruciate ligaments are important ligaments that stabilize all ball-and-socket joints.||FALSE|
| Flexion of the ankle so that the superior aspect of the foot approaches the shin is called|
|The gripping of the trochlea by the trochlear notch constitutes the "hinge" for the elbow joint.||TRUE|
|The ligamentum teres represents a very important stabilizing ligament for the hip joint.||FALSE|
| The structural classification of joints is based on the composition of the binding material and|
the presence or absence of a joint cavity.
| Synovial fluid contains phagocytic cells that protect the cavity from invasion by microbes or|
| A person who has been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis would be suffering loss of the|
|A ball-and-socket joint is a multiaxial joint.||TRUE|
|Bending of the tip of the finger exhibits flexion.||TRUE|
| Dislocations in the TMJ almost always dislocate posteriorly with the mandibular condyles|
ending up in the infratemporal fossa.
|Symphyses are synarthrotic joints designed for strength with flexibility.||FALSE|
| A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ________ joint.|
| The cruciate ligaments of the knee ________.|
A) tend to run parallel to one another
B) are also called collateral ligaments
C) prevent hyperextension of the knee
D) assist in defining the range of motion of the leg
|C) prevent hyperextension of the knee|
| Articular cartilage found at the ends of the long bones serves to ________.|
A) attach tendons
B) produce red blood cells (hemopoiesis)
C) provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints
D) form the synovial membrane
|C) provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints|
| A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of|
movement is a ________.
| On the basis of structural classification, which joint is fibrous connective tissue?|
| Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where|
friction develops are called ________.
| Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are ________.|
D) synovial joints
| ________ are cartilaginous joints.|
| The gliding motion of the wrist is accomplished because of the ________ joint.|
| The ligaments that protect the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles and limit the|
movement of the femur anteriorly and posteriorly are called ________.
A) cruciate ligaments
B) patellar ligaments
C) anterior ligaments
D) tibial collateral ligaments
|A) cruciate ligaments|
| Bending your head back until it hurts is an example of ________.|
| In the classification of joints, which of the following is true?|
A) Immovable joints are called amphiarthroses.
B) All synovial joints are freely movable.
C) Synarthrotic joints are slightly movable.
D) In cartilaginous joints, a joint cavity is present.
|B) All synovial joints are freely movable.|
| Synarthrotic joints ________.|
A) are found at the junction of the epiphysis and diaphysis of growing bone
B) are cartilaginous joints
C) permit essentially no movement
D) have large joint cavities
|C) permit essentially no movement|
| Fibrous joints are classified as ________.|
A) pivot, hinge, and ball and socket
B) symphysis, sacroiliac, and articular
C) hinge, saddle, and ellipsoidal
D) sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
|D) sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses|
| In symphysis joints the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with ________.|
A) hyaline cartilage
B) synovial membranes
D) tendon sheaths
|A) hyaline cartilage|
| Synovial fluid is present in joint cavities of freely movable joints. Which of the following|
statements is true about this fluid?
A) It contains enzymes only.
B) It contains lactic acid.
C) It contains hyaluronic acid.
D) It contains hydrochloric acid.
|C) It contains hyaluronic acid.|
| Which of the following statements defines synchondroses?|
A) amphiarthrotic joints designed for strength and flexibility
B) interphalangeal joints
C) joints that permit angular movements
D) cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones
|D) cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones|
| What are menisci?|
A) cavities lined with cartilage
B) small sacs containing synovial fluid
C) semilunar cartilage pads
D) tendon sheaths
|C) semilunar cartilage pads|
| Which of the following is a true statement regarding gliding movements?|
A) Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints.
B) Gliding movements allow flexibility of the upper limbs.
C) Gliding movements are multiaxial.
D) An example of a gliding movement is nodding one's head.
|A) Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints.|
| What is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane|
| The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to the ________.|
D) hands and the feet
| The hip joint is a good example of a(n) ________ synovial joint.|
| Movement allowed in a pivot joint is known as ________.|
A) biaxial movement
C) uniaxial rotation
|C) uniaxial rotation|
| Compared to the shoulder, displacements of the hip joints are ________.|
A) common due to the weight bearing the hip endures
B) rare because of the ligament reinforcement
C) common in all people who are overweight
D) rare because the rotator cuff stabilizes the hip joint
|B) rare because of the ligament reinforcement|
| Which ligament holds the radius to the ulna at the proximal end?|
B) ulnar collateral
C) radial collateral
| Which ligament of the knee initiates the knee-jerk reflex when tapped?|
A) the patellar ligament
B) the medial patellar retinacula
C) the lateral patellar retinacula
D) the extracapsular ligament
|A) the patellar ligament|
| Football players often sustain lateral blows to the extended knee. Which of the ligaments is|
(are) damaged as a result?
A) oblique popliteal and extracapsular ligament
C) arcuate popliteal and the posterior cruciate
D) medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate
|D) medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate|
| Which of the following conditions is generally considered a noninflammatory type of|
D) rheumatoid arthritis
|What can cause gouty arthritis?|
A) excessive blood levels of uric acid deposited as crystals in the soft tissue joints
B) a disorder in the body's immune system resulting in destruction of joints
C) a thickening of the synovial membrane and a decrease in fluid production
D) a bacterial infection in the bursae
|A) excessive blood levels of uric acid deposited as crystals in the soft tissue joints|
| Pointing the toes is an example of ________.|
B) plantar flexion
|B) plantar flexion|
|Which of the following is a true statement?|
A) The head of the humerus articulates with the acromion process.
B) The greater tubercle of the humerus articulates at the coracoid process of the scapula.
C) The rotator cuff is responsible for the flexible extensions at the elbow joint.
D) The anular ligament surrounds the head of the radius.
|D) The anular ligament surrounds the head of the radius.|
| Multiaxial joints of the body include ________.|
A) the knee and elbow
B) the ankle and wrist
C) the hip and shoulder
D) intercarpal and intertarsal joints
|C) the hip and shoulder|
| Presence of a synovial cavity, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and ligaments are|
characteristics of what type of joint?
D) hinge joint
|D) hinge joint|
|Extracapsular ligaments stabilizing the knee include ________.|
A) the patellar ligament extending from femur to patella
B) lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements
C) cruciate ligaments, which help secure the articulating bones together
D) the oblique popliteal crossing the knee anteriorly
|B) lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements|
|Which of the following is a correct statement about development of joints?|
A) Joints develop in parallel with bones.
B) By the end of the fourth week, fetal synovial joints resemble adult joints.
C) All fibrous joints are in the adult form by the time of birth.
D) Joints develop independent of bone growth.
|A) Joints develop in parallel with bones.|
| An example of an interosseus fibrous joint is ________.|
A) the clavicle and the scapula at the distal ends
B) the radius and ulna along its length
C) between the vertebrae
D) between the humerus and the glenoid cavity
|B) the radius and ulna along its length|
| Which of the following statements best describes angular movements?|
A) They allow movement only in one plane.
B) They allow movement in several planes.
C) They occur only between bones with flat articular processes.
D) They change (increase or decrease) the angle between two bones.
|D) They change (increase or decrease) the angle between two bones.|
|Saddle joints have concave and convex surfaces. Name the two bones of the hand that|
articulate to form a saddle joint.
A) The scaphoid of the index finger and the triquetrum of the middle finger.
B) The trapezium of the ring finger and the capitate of the fourth finger.
C) The scaphoid of the middle finger and lunate of the index finger.
D) The trapezium of the carpal bone and the thumb's metacarpal.
|D) The trapezium of the carpal bone and the thumb's metacarpal.|
| Tendon sheaths ________.|
A) act as friction-reducing structures
B) are lined with dense irregular connective tissue
C) form channels for tendons
D) help anchor the tendon to the muscle
|A) act as friction-reducing structures|
| Which of the following is not a part of the synovial joint?|
A) joint cavity
B) tendon sheath
C) articular cartilage
D) articular capsule
|B) tendon sheath|
| Which of the following is not a factor that contributes to keeping the articular surfaces of|
diarthroses in contact?
A) structure and shape of the articulating bone
B) arrangement and tension of the muscles
C) strength and tension of joint ligaments
D) number of bones in the joint
|D) number of bones in the joint|