the liquid part of the blood and lymphatic fluid, which makes up about half of its volume. Plasma is devoid of cells and unlike serum, has not clotted. Blood plasma contains antibodies and other proteins.
an irregular, disc-shaped element in the blood that assists in blood clotting. During normal blood clotting, the platelets clump together (aggregate). Although platelets are often classed as blood cells, they are actually fragments of large bone marrow cells called megakaryocytes.
the production of all types of blood cells generated by a remarkable self-regulated system that is responsive to the demands put upon it. It is the process by which immature precursor cells develop into mature blood cells.
substances in the blood that act in sequence to stop bleeding by forming a clot.
the clotting of blood. The process by which the blood clots to form solid masses, or clots.
the proportion of the blood that consists of red blood cells. Expressed as a percentage by volume. The red blood cells are packed by centrifugation.
Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
delivering oxygen and removing waste throughout the body.
White Blood cells (leukocytes)
whenever a germ or infection enters the body, the white blood cells snap to attention to race toward the scene of the crime. There's a variety of ways white blood cells attack. Some will produce antibodies that will overpower the germ. Others will surround and devour the bacteria
when, for some unexpected reason, sudden blood loss occurs, the blood platelets kick into action. Their sticky surfaces, along with other substances, form clots to stop bleeding. Vitamin K and fibrinogen help the platelets form the clot.
90% water, it also contains salts and minerals like calcium, sodium, magnesium, and potassium. Microbe fighting antibodies travel to the battle fields of disease by traveling in the plasma.
Stem cells are distinguished from other cell types by two important characteristics. First, they are unspecialized cells capable of renewing themselves through cell division, sometimes after long periods of inactivity. Second, under certain physiologic or experimental conditions, they can be induced to become tissue- or organ-specific cells with special functions.
is a soft, fatty tissue found inside of bones that produces blood cells (Red blood cells, white bloods cells and platelets).
role of the hematopoietic system in a normally functioning body.
The bodily system of organs and tissues, primarily the bone marrow, spleen, tonsils, and lymph nodes, involved in the production of blood. In a normal functioning body produces blood.
Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration
procedures to collect and examine bone marrow. Shows whether bone marrow is healthy and making normal amounts of blood cells.
Complete blood count (CBC)
also known as hemogram. A board screening test to check for such disorders as anemia, infection and many other diseases.
also known as peripheral smear, blood film, RBC morphology. Determine if red blood cells and white blood cells and platelets are normal in appearance and number, to distinguish between the different types of white blood cells and determines their relative percentages in blood.
Red blood cell count
also known as red count and erythrocyte count. Used to evaluate any type of decrease or increase in the number of red blood cells as measured per liter of blood.
White blood cell count
also known as leukocyte count, leukocyte differential count, and white blood cell morphology. Used to see if you have an infection or disease that affects the white blood cells.
White blood differential count
used to diagnose an illness affecting your immune system, such as a viral infection, or white blood cells, such as leukemia's.
also called Hgb, hb. Measures severity of anemia or polycythemia, monitors its response
also called hct, crit, packed cell volume(PCV). Check to see if you have anemia, polycythemia, or dehydration.
also called thrombocyte count, PLT. to test for bleeding disorders or bone marrow diseases, such as leukemia, determines platelet number and function.
Prothrombin time (PT)
also called pro time. Measures how long it takes for a clot to form in a sample of blood.
Partial prothrombin test
also called activated partial prothrombin (aPTT)-used to investigate unexplained bleeding or clotting.
a test that measures the different types of oxygen-carrying protein in the blood.
common medical and surgical management of disorders of the hematopoietic system.
Bone marrow transplant and peripheral blood stem cell-procedures that restore stem cells that have been destroyed by high doses of chemo and or radiation therapy.
3 types- autologous transplants- patients receive their own stem cells.
Syngenic transplants-receive stem cells from identical twin.
Allogenic transplants-from brother, sister or parent. Can be from not related to the family
changes which occur across the life span which affect the hematopoetic system
Aging cells- as cells age, they function less well. Eventually, old cells must die, as a normal part of the body's functioning.
Aging organs-how well organs function depends on how well the cells within them function. Older cells function less well. Also, in some organs, cells die and aren't replaced, so the number of cells decreases. The number of cells in the testes, ovaries, liver and kidneys decreases markedly as the body ages. When the number of cells becomes too low, an organ cannot function normally.
Sickle Cell Anemia Overview
Is an inherited form of anemia-a condition in which there is not enough red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen throughout the body.
Sickle Cell Etiology
By mutation in the gene that tells your body to make hemoglobin, which is what allows red blood cells to carry oxygen from your lungs to all parts of your body. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to become rigid, sticky and misshapen.
Sickle Cell S&S
Usually show after an infant is four months old and may include: anemia, episodes of pain, hand-foot syndrome(swollen hands and feet), frequent infections (can damage your spleen, which fights infection), delayed growth, vision problems.
Sickle Cell Diagnostic testing
A blood can check for hemoglobin S-the defective form of hemoglobin that underlies sickle cell anemia. If positive for sickle-cell they'll examine a sample of blood.
Sickle Cell Anemia Treatment
Bone marrow transplant offers the only cure for sickle cell anemia, but that can be fatal. Need to check red blood cell count regularly, medications to reduce pain and prevent complications, blood transfusions and supplemental oxygen.
Iron Deficiency Anemia Overview
Due to insufficient iron. Without enough iron, your body can't produce enough hemoglobin, a substance in red blood cells that enables them to carry oxygen.
Iron Deficiency Anemia Etiology
When not enough iron to produce hemoglobin. Blood loss, lack of iron in diet, inability to absorb iron, pregnancy.
Iron deficiency anemia S&S
Extreme fatigue, pale skin, weakness, shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, lightheadedness, cold hands and feet, irritability, inflammation or soreness of your tongue, brittle nails, fast heartbeat, unusual cravings for non-nutritive substances, such as ice, dirt or starch, poor appetite, an uncomfortable tingling crawling feeling in your legs.
Iron deficiency anemia diagnostic testing
May run tests to look for red blood cell size and color, hematocrit, hemoglobin (low), ferritin, other tests: endoscopy, colonoscopy, and ultrasound.
Iron deficiency anemia treatment
Iron supplements, take iron tablets on empty stomach, take iron tables with vitamin C.
Vitamin Deficiency anemia's (megaloblastic anemia's) Overview
A lack of healthy red blood cells caused by lower than normal amounts of certain vitamins: include Vitamin B-12 and Vitamin C.
Vitamin Deficiency anemias etiology
Folate deficiency anemia, vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia(pernicious anemia), vitamin C deficiency anemia lacking in certain vitamins in diet.
Vitamin Deficiency anemias S&S
Fatigue, shortness of breath, dizziness, pale or yellowish skin, swollen tongue that may appear dark red, weight loss, diarrhea, numbness or tingling in our hands and feet, muscle weakness, irritability, unsteady movements, mental confusion or forgetfulness.
Vitamin Deficiency anemias testing
Through tests that check for the number and appearance of red blood cells, the amount of folate, Vitamin B-12, and vitamin C in your blood. Additional tests for B-12 deficiency: antibodies test, methylmalonic acid test, schilling test.
Vitamin Deficiency anemias treatment
Supplements and changes in diet.
Aplastic anemia overview
A condition that occurs when our body stops producing enough new blood cells.
Aplastic anemia etiology
When damage occurs to your bone marrow, slowing or shutting down the production of new blood cells.
Aplastic anemia S&S
Fatigue, shortness of breath with exertion, rapid or irregular heart rate, pale skin, frequent or prolonged infections, unexplained or easy bruising, nosebleed and bleeding gums, prolonged bleeding from cuts, skin rash, dizzy, headaches.
Aplastic anemia testing
To diagnose doctor may run blood tests or bone marrow biopsy.
Aplastic anemia treatment
Immunosuppressant's, bone marrow stimulants, antibiotics, antivirals.
Severe cases: blood transfusions, stem-cell transplant.
Cancer of the body's blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow and lymphatic system.
Unknown, might be environment and genetics.
Fever or chills, resistant fatigue, weakness, frequent infections, losing weight without trying, swollen lymph nodes, enlarged live or spleen, easy bleeding or bruising. Tiny red spots on skin (petechiae) excessive sweating (usually at night), bone pain or tenderness
Physical exam, blood tests, bone marrow test.
Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, biological therapy, targeted therapy, stem cell transplant.
Polycythemia vera Overview
A blood disorder in which your bone marrow makes too many red blood cells.
Polycythemia Vera Etiology
Not clear, but it's believed to be inherited.
Polycythemia Vera S&S
Early stages usually doesn't cause signs and symptoms as disease progresses causes headache, dizziness, itchiness (especially following a warm bath or shower), redness of your skin, shortness of breath, breathing difficulty when lying down, numbness, tingling, or weakness in hands, legs, feet and arms, a feeling of fullness due to an enlarged spleen, fatigue
Polycythemia Vera Testing
Blood tests, bone marrow aspiration or biopsy, tests for the gene mutation.
Polycythemia Vera Treatment
Taking blood out of your veins, meds to decrease blood cells, low dose aspirin, therapy to reduce itching
Disorder of your blood clotting system.
Deficiency of clotting factors. Depending on what hemophilia depends on what clotting factors is deficient
Hemophilia etiology of Hemophilia A
lack of clotting factor 8 (VIII). Most common.
Hemophilia etiology of Hemophilia B
second most common. Lack of clotting factor 9 (IX).
Hemophilia etiology of Hemophilia C
lack of clotting facto 11(XI) and symptoms are often mild with this type.
Hemophilia etiology of inherited hemophilia
Hemophilia A & B carry on the X chromosome so can't get from your father, but Hemophilia C can get from both parents.
Hemophilia Spontaneous S&S
Many or large deep bruises.
Joint pain/swelling cause by internal bleeding.
-Unexplained and excessive bleeding/bruising.
-blood in urine or stool
-prolonged bleeding from cuts or injuries or after surgery or tooth extraction.
-tightness in your joints
-in infants, unexplained irritability.
-unusual bleeding after immunization.
Hemophilia Emergency S&S
Sudden pain, swelling and warmth of large joints, such as knees, elbows, hips and shoulders and muscles of arms and legs, bleeding from an injury, painful, lasting headache, repeated vomiting, extreme fatigue, neck pain, double vision
Blood tests, can test fetus while pregnant, but has risks. Usually not diagnosed until after surgery and excessive bleeding occurs.
depends on severity
Hemophilia treatment for mild Hemophilia A
slow injection of hormone desmopressin (DDAVP) into vein to stimulate a release of more clotting factor to stop bleeding
Hemophilia treatment for moderate Hemophlia A & B
infusion from donor or recombinant clotting factors.
Hemophilia treatment for Hemophilia C
factor only available in Europe, in the united states plasma infusions are needed.