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Sea Peoples

Invaders who destroyed the Egyptian and Hittite empire in the late 13th centrury, unidentified b/c scattered after attacked.

Third Intermediate Period

1100-653 BCE. When Egyptian suffered political fragmentation, a new dark age

Nubians

Energetic People who extended authority northward throughout the Nile Valley and adapted many features of Egyptian culture

Kushites

People from independent African state that grew while Egypt was disorganized they worshiped Egyptian gods and used Egyptian Hieroglyphs

Phoenicians

People who also rose during Egypt's disorganization Semetic speaking people who have long inhabited several cities along the coast of modern Lebanon became excellent explorers and merchants

Purple People

Phoenicians in Greek and they played a huge role in trade and exported goods, the most valued being purple and blue textiles which is how they got their name.

Carthage

City that was founded in 813 BCE that the Phoenicians founded that would one day struggle with Rome for domination of the western Mediterranean

Phoenician cultural Legacy

The development of an alphabet

Hebrews

ancient Jews that had a kingdom south of Phoenicia

Hebrew Bible

A religious document that contains many myths and legends as well as historical material and is the only source for the Hebrew culture

Moses

Hebrew leader that led them out of Egypt

Philistines

Who the Hebrews encountered in Palestine

Amorites

People who also encountered the Hebrews; relatives of Hammurabi's Babylonians

Canaanites

Semitic speaking people who encountered the Hebrews in Palestine

Baal

An ancient Semitic fertility god represented as as a golden calf

Yahweh

The God the Hebrews later considered as the only God

Saul

The Hebrew leader in 1,000 BCE who kept the Philistines at bay and established a monarchy over the twelve Hebrew tribes

David (of Bethlehem)

Continued Saul's work and captured the city of Jerusalem which he enlarged and made the religious center of their realm

Solomon

David's son who created a nation by dividing it into twelve territorial districts heading across the old tribal borders he also launched a building program that included cities, palaces, fortresses, and roads.

Arc of the Covenant

The chest that contained the holiest of the Hebrew religious articles which was in the temple of Jerusalem (temple ruled by Solomon and intended to be the religious heart of the kingdom and the symbol of Hebrew unity)

Israel

Northern part of Solomon's Kingdom when it broke in political halves at his death

Samaria

Capital of Israel

Judah

The southern part of Solomon's Kingdom when it broke in political halves at his death

Jerusalem

Capital of Judah

Babylonian Captivity

The period of Jewish History between 586-537 BCE During which the political and spiritual leaders of the Kingdom of Judah were deported to Babylon following the defeat of Judah by Nebuchadnezzar

Cyrus the great

The Persian king in 538 BCE who permitted some 40,000 exiles to return to Jerusalem

Jewish Family Life

Marriage was practically a requirement, boys and girls were often arranged to be married at a young age, and became married at a very young age as well. Families would be produced at once and sons were wanted more than daughters because they maintained the family bloodline but they didn't believe in killing daughter b/c Yahweh prohibited

Mothers and fathers and relationships with sons and daughters

Parents made arrangements for their child's husband/wife mothers oversaw the early education of the children but as boys grew older their fathers gave them more education.

Iranians

Indo-Europeans from central Europe and southern Russia who migrated into Iran (area between Caspian Sea ans Persian Gulf) and were overcome by cultures of Mesopotamia

Persians

Most important of Iranian people who went on to create one of the greatest empires in the Ancient near east. They would use force but they preferred to depend on diplomacy so they let the subjects practice their native cultures and religions which gave the near east political unity and central diversity

Geographic Features of Persia

Lots of mountains and desserts, in modern day Iran, a broad central plateau in the heart of the country between Tigris Euphrates valley in the west and the Indus valley in the east rises and immense plateau surrounded on all sides by mountains that cut off the interior from the sea.

Geographic Impact on Iran history

Topography and Geography made it the highway between western and Eastern Phoenicia and where nomads met urban dwellers (because they were nomads and cities started to form)

Iranian Military Advantage

Had horses before many nations, rode horses and had them draw chariots.

Medes

the kinsman of the Persians who united under one King around 710 BCE and extended their control over the Persians to the south in 612 BCE they joined the Babylonians in overthrowing the Assyrian Empire

Ecbatama

in Media and northern part of Iran, the capital of the Medes and it is modern Hamadan

Cyrus the great and his two goals

1) Get control of the west thus of the terminal ports of the great trade roots that crossed Iran and Anatolia (modern western Turkey)
2) Strove to secure eastern Iran from the pressure of nomadic invaders

Lydia

A young kingdom easily overcome by the Persians and Cyrus the great

Croesus

King of Lydia who was conquered but became a friend and adviser to Cyrus b/c Cyrus was benevolent to him and spared his life

Examples of Cyrus's humane Decisions

Spared Croesus' life and became his friend, let the Greeks live according to their customs, restored the sacred jewish objects to the jews, return the jews to jerusalem and helped rebuild their temple.

Assyrians

Semitic Akkadian Kingdom, from the 23rd Century BCE to 608 BCE centered on the Upper Tigris River in north Mesopotamia

Tiglath- Pileser III

A prominent king of Assyria in the eighth century BCE and founded the Neo-Assyrians

Sargon II

An assyrian king that became the sole ruler of Assyria in 722 BCE

Nineveh

Ancient Assyrian city on the Eastern bank of the Tigris river

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