What are Osler Nodes?
Painful, red raised lesions on finger tips
What are Janeway lesions?
Flat, painless, red-blue lesions on palms/soles
What is pulsus magnus?
Strong, bounding pulses with rapid upstroke and downstroke.
What is pulsus alternans?
Alternating pulse waves, every other beat weaker than preceding beat due to weakened myocardium. (Cause can be severe LV failure)
What is pulsus bisferiens?
Double beating pulse, 2 pulses palpated during systole
What is pulsus paradoxus?
An abnormal decrease in SBP on inspiration
Absent pedal pulses, reddish pigment to skin (dependent rubor), ischemic and/or gangrenous areas. Assess the 5 P's
Where do you auscultate for Aortic sounds?
2nd ICS, to the right of the sternum
Where do you auscultate for Pulmonic Sounds?
2nd ICS, to the left of the sternum
Where do you auscultate for Tricuspid sounds?
4th ICS, to the left of the sternum
Where do you auscultate for Mitral Sounds?
5th ICS, midclavicular line
What is S1 sound?
Results from the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves, best heard at apex with diaphragm of stethoscope, represents the beginning of systole, Carotid pulse occurs during S1
What is S2 sound?
Results from closure of aortic and pulmonic valves, best heard at aortic area, occurs at the end of ventricular systole, represents beginning of diastole
What is S3 sound?
Occurs early in diastole, heard at APEX with bell of stethoscope, sign of ventricular distress. Occurs in early CHF, L/R shunts, VSD, PDA, Incompetent valves, decreased ventricular compliance, called a ventricular gallop.
What is S4 sound?
Occurs late in diastole, just before S1, during atrial contraction, heard best at apex with bell of stethoscope, due to decreased ventricular compliance, atrial contraction causes a low frequency S4.
What is pericardial friction rub?
Sign of pericardial inflammation. Scratchy, grating, or squeaking sound.
What is a murmur?
It produced a blowing or swooshing sound caused by backward regurgitation of blood thru an incompetent valve, septal defect, or A-V connection, forward flow of blood thru narrowed or deformed valve