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Sumerians

creators of first Mesopotamian civilization; capital: Ur, temples, ziggurats, big walls

Akkadians

semitic people to the north of sumeria, conquered sumeria

Sargon

ruler of the Akkadians, formed and empire

hammurabi

ruler of the Amorites, unified Mesopotamia

divination

reading the gods wishes by sacrificing animals or reading the stars

epic of gilgamesh

epic poem about the king of uruk who wanted to become immortal

dynasty

time period where one family ruled over the years

menes

first royal egyptian dynasty, united upper and lower egypt

ma'at

spiritual precept that conveyed the ideas of truth and justice but especially right order and harmony

bureaucracy

had regular procedures and departments: police, justice, river transport, public works, agriculture, and treasury

vizier

"steward of the whole land" in charge of bureaucracy

nomarch

governor, greek term

middle kingdom

leaders thought of people when making decisions

social ladder of egypt

pharaoh, nobles and priests, merchants and artisans, farmers

sun cult

sun god- Re, importance of the sun

Osiris cult

resurrection and rebirth, first for wealthy people then to everyone else

book of the dead

held magical incantations that were used to ensure a favorable journey to a happy afterlife

ka

spiritual form of the body

art

assist dead to the afterworld, strict canon:proportions, form and presentation

Hyksos

semitic, originally in arabian peninsula, introduced bronze

New Kingdom

militaristic and imperialistic, most powerful

Amenhotep

introduced monotheism

Ramses

regained control of Palestine

Hatshepsut

woman queen, military expeditions, mining, agriculture, trading expeditions

marraige

parent arranged, produce kids, could divorce

neolithic europe

domesticated animals, farming on their own, large stone structures

Stonehenge

england, rings of stone structures, lined up with celestial objects

indo-europeans

black sea area, moved into europe

Hittites

threatened power of egypt, used iron

Phoenecians

semitic, extended trade, used water to traves, phonetical alphabet

hebrews

judaism, migrated to egypt because of a drought, enslaved in egypt

Judaism

influenced christianity and islam, flourished as a world religion

hebrew bible

old testament, hebrews as nomadic people, describes journey of hebrews

Saul

king of israel

David

King of israel

Solomon

king of Israel

temple

symbolic center of religion, arc of the covenant

israel

north of Judah, overtaken by Assyria

Judah

South of Israel, overtaken by Chaldeans

Yahweh

Jewish god

Assyrians

semitic, tigris river area, military

Ashurbanipal

strongest Assyrian ruler

Assyrian military

standing army at all times, well organized and disciplined

Chaldeans

semitic, led to collapse of assyrians

Persians

indo-european, nomadic, tribes and clans

Cyrus the Great

united persian clans, conquered surrounding areas

Darius

largest empire, created satrapies

Zoroastrianism

persian form of monotheism

Ahuramazda

main persian god

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