an official not participation in benefices but receiving payment and privileges. On of the corruptions in the Catholic Church
He defeated Luther in the Leipzig Debate over indulgences in July 1519. He forced Luther to deny authority of popes and councils.
diet of worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Writer of the Confessions of Augsburg
Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
Representatives of peasants met and made these articles expressing their anger. It blamed religious lords and summarized the crisis of the 16th century. They complained about how nobles treated them poorly and heavily taxed them.
league of schmalkalden
in Northern Germany formed by newly Protestant (Lutheran) princes to defend themselves against Charles V's drive to re-Catholicize Germany
confessions of ausburg
Written by Philip Melanchthon. Attempt to compromise religious faith of Lutheran and Catholic princes- rejected by Catholic princes
peace of augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
The rejected infant baptism and believed that a person should choose their own faith.
john of leiden
Led Anabaptist takeover of Munster- declared it the new Jerusalem and burned all books besides Bible. Made polygamy the standard. Infant baptism became capitol offense
Tragedy at Münster
1534, combined armies of Protestant and Catholic forces captured the city and executed Anabaptist leaders
founded by Dutch leader Menno Simmons became descendants of Anabaptists and emphasized pacifism.
Swiss theologian whose sermons began the Reformation in Switzerland (1484-1531)
Colloquy at Marburg
Zwingli officially split with Luther over issue of Eucharist
The consistory, or regulatory court, became Calvin's instrument of power. This body was composed of the elders and pastors and was presided over by one of four syndics. It enforced the strictest moral discipline.
a Unitarian humanist from Spain, was burned at the stake in 1553 for his denial of the Trinity
English translator and Protestant martyr
Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
replaced Wolsey and convinced Henry in 1533 that he could divorce Catherine by breaking away from Rome
Pilgrimage of Grace
Revolt against the Church of England by those who wanted to stay with the catholic church
Peter Paul Rubens
Flemish painter known for his large, lush style
Painting in the "shadowy manner" using violent contrasts of light and dark as in the work of Caravaggio
Italian painter noted for his realistic depiction of religious subjects and his novel use of light (1573-1610)
Pope Paul IV created papal bull that blamed jews for the death of christ and forced them into ghettos
Pope Paul III
Italian pope who excommunicated Henry VIII, instituted the order of the Jesuits, appointed many reform-minded cardinals, and initiated the Council of Trent.
Teresa de Avila
Spanish leader of the reform movement for monasteries and convents. Believed an individual could have a direct relationship with God through prayer and contemplation
founded the Ursuline Order of Nuns in the 1530s to proved education and religious training
Katerina von Bora
German Catholic nun who became the wife of Martin Luther
written in 1563, this defined the rules of the Anglican Church. The document followed Protestant doctrine but still accomodated for other English, except the Puritans.
Elizabeth and Parliament required conformity to the Church of England but people were, in effect, allowed to worship Protestantism and Catholicism privately
Protestants that fled England fearing persecution under Bloody Marry
English Peasant Revolt 1381
a peasant revolt that was waged for the rise of wages
Lollards, John Wyclife
An English Protestant sect that stressed individual reading and interpretation of the Bible.
Followers of John Huss who questioned Catholic teachings about the Eucharist
Fall of Constantinople
the Ottoman empire had surrounded the area around _______ and in 1453 it fell to Sultan Mehmed II (the "Conqueror"). It became the Ottoman capital and was renamed Istanbul.
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia ca. 1300. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453 to 1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
The Divine Comedy
Dante Aligheri's epic poem written in Italian vernacular
written after 1387 by Geoffrey Chaucer, English, writes satire
Francois Villon - legacy to a prostitute, describes his faith in the beauty of life, elements of social rebellion, includes humor and rare emotional depth
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century. (p. 408)
The belief that the Catholic Church should be led by councils of cardinals rather than popes
despots who controlled much of Italy by 1300.
rule of merchant aristocracies, controlled much of Italy by 1300
Contract between merchant and
"merchant-adventurer" who agreed to take goods to
distant locations and return with the proceeds (for 1/3
soldier for hire. Mercenary generals of private armies hired by cities for military purposes.
Peace of Lodi, 1454
Ends the violence between the Italian city-sates by creating a balance of power. Milan, Florence vs. The Papal States
Republic of Venice
Longest lasting of the Italian states because it did not succumb to foreign powers until Napoleon. Also one of the world's great naval and trading powers during the 14th and 15th centuries
some of the the most important renaissance city states in central Italy that included Rome and were ruled by the Pope.
Naples, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Only Italian city state to official have a "king". controlled by both France and Spain.
French king, invited by Sforza to invade Florence, fought over Italy with Ferdinand of Aragon in the first Italian war
Italian religious and political reformer
Machiavelli, The Prince
This man wrote this work, which claimed that while it is best to be feared and loved, if you have to choose, it is better to be feared. "The ends justify the means"
Son of Pope Alexander VI who had ambitions to unite Italy under his control.
Sack of Rome, 1527
May 5, 1527 - A military event carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, then part of the Papal States. It marked a crucial imperial victory in the conflict between Charles I of Spain Holy Roman Emperor, and the League of Cognac, (1526-1529) — the alliance of France, Milan, Venice, Florence and the Papacy.
"Father of Humanism." studied classical Greek and Latin. introduced emotion in "Sonnets to Laura"
as father of italian prose; most consider as very much early modern
1. First to use the term "humanism"
2. Among the most important of the civic humanists
3. Served as a chancellor in Florence
4. Wrote a history of Florence, perhaps the first modern
history, and wrote a narrative using primary source
documents and the division of historical periods
Founded the Platonic Academy at the behest of Cosimo de' Medici in the 1460s. Translated Plato's works into Latin, giving modern Europeans access to these works for the fist time.
Pico Della Mirandola, Oration on the
Dignity of Man
wrote one of the most famous Renaissance works on the nature of the human mind, saying that because man was created by God, they had potential for greatness, but could also choose a negative course.
Baldassare Castiglione, Book of the
His most famous work on Renaissance education specified qualities necessary to be a true Renaissance man; be familar with all subjects. Must be well versed in Greek and Roman classics, so they could converse, must be an accomplished warrior, could play music and dance.
On Pleasure, and On the False Donation of Constantine, which challenged the authority of the papacy. Father of modern historical criticism.
Giorgio Vasari, The Lives of the Artists
biography of Italy's many great artists
Pope Alexander VI
as criticism of the Catholic Church began, many people criticized that popes spend extravagantly on personal pleasure and fought wars; this pope even admitted to fathering several children
The treatment of light and shade in a work of art, especially to give an illusion of depth.
considered first Renaissance painter; use of chiaroscuro
Brunelleschi, Il Duomo
"Father of perspective"; the largest dome in Europe at the time (his masterpiece)
Lorenzo Ghiberti, ―gates of paradise‖
baptistery Florence, Italy, 1425-52. Gilded bronze. Abandoned the Gothic quatrefoil frames for the biblical scenes and employed painterly illusionistic devices.
a sculptor; first statue that was nude
Masaccio, Expulsion of Adam & Eve
Also studied the past for inspiration, he was the first Renaissance painter to portray real, nude human figures in 3D, his Fresco painting shows tremendous emotion.
Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus
The subject of his painting ins Venus, the Roman goddess of love, which makes this a great work of humanism since it shows paganism. He uses the contrapposto shape that Greek and Roman sculptors used ( more weight on one leg than other).
period beginning in the late 15th century, it produced some of the most well-knownreligious and secular artwork of the period from such figures as leonardo, raphael, and michelangelo
Greatest Renaissance painter in Venice, used vivid color and movement, which was the opposite of the subtle colors and static figures in Florentine paintings.
Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poese and compression of space.
Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color (1541-1614)
the movement in Art in Germany and Flanders that reflected greater religious tones; , Emphasized Critical Thinking, Developed Christian Humanism criticizing the church & society, Painting/ Woodcuts/Literature
Jacques Lefevre d'Etables
produced 5 versions of Psalms
Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros
reformed Spanish clergy; Grand Inquisitor of Spanish Inquisition
Francois Rabelais, Gargantua and
His writings were written in French vernacular and helped unify the language. His well known writings portrayed his confidence in human nature, as he satirized French society and attacked clerical education, and argued for secular learning.
Michel de Montaigne
Developed the essay form. Skepticism, doubt that rue knowledge could be obtained.
Miguel de Cervantes
Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616)
a Northern Renaissance Art, More detail throughout painting, use of oil paints, more emotional that the Italian style, and works often preoccupied with death
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441)
a Netherlands artist who's art often focused on death and the pains of Hell
Peter Brueghel, the Elder
not influenced by Italian Renaissance; focused on lives of ordinary people
German artist who lived from 1471-1528. Famous for his woodcuts and copper engravings. He was also the first to create printed illustrations in books.
Hans Holbein the Younger
German Painter noted for his portraits and religious paintings.
A family in Germany who had a great deal of money due to international banking, and they used there pull to patronize art of the Northern Renaissance.
Christine de Pisan
Began a new debate over the proper role of women in society. Europe's first feminist, and well educated in France
First Lady of the Renaissance. Set an example that women should break away from expected roles, and stared a school for young women
Perhaps the first female artist to gain recognition in the post-Renaissance era. First woman to paint historical and religious scenes