Describe 3 types of chemical bonds/interactions in proteins.
1. Covalent/peptide = peptide linkage in a chain of amino acids as the primary structure
2. Disulfide covalent = bridge between two sulfur R groups in tertiary or quarternary structure
3. Hydrogen = H-O or H-N R groups in secondary, tertiary, or quarternary structure as an alpha helix or beta pleated sheet.
Discuss how the structure of a protein affects enzyme activity and cell signaling.
Enzyme Activity = changes shape due to changes in pH and temperature levels.
Cell Signaling = gap junctions; shape of junctions allows for passage of regulatory ions or molecules.
& Immune signaling: leads to activation of cells.
Explain the genetic basis of abnormal hemoglobin
Point mutation in DNA; base substitution leading to a different amino acid in the hemoglobin.
Explain why sickle cell anemia would be optimal in some areas of the world.
Changed hemoglobin leads to oxygen-deprivation minimizing malarial infection.
Heterozygotes maintain a reproductive advantage/success.