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Pathogenicity

What is the term meaning the ability to cause disease?

virulence

what is the term for the measurement of that ability?

Portal of entry, adherence, penetration into the host cell, evasion, damage to host tissue

Steps of microbial mechanisms?

mucous membranes, skin, parenteral route

What are the three ways microbes get inside host?

respiratory tract

What is the easiest and most often used mucous membranes use for portal of entry?

Gastrointestinal

what is the mucous membrane portal of entry where most microbes are killed here by HCI and enzymes and if survives can be transmitted via feces?

pneumonia, tb, influenza, measles, small pox

What are some examples of the microbes that enter through the respiratory tract?

typhoid fever, poliomyletitis, shigellosis

What are some examples of the microbes that enter through the Gl ?

Genitourinary tract

what is the portal entry for STD's?

unbroken mucous membranes, cuts or abrasions

how do microbes enter throug the GU?

genital warts, herpes, HIV

What are some examples of the viruses that enter through the GU?

skin

when microbes enter through hair follicles, sweat glands, or by boring through this tissue they are using what tissue as a portal of entry?

parenteral route

When microbes enter through punctures, injections, bites, cuts, surgery, or splitting they are using what portal of entry?

samonilla typhimurium (ingested), streptococcus pneumoniae (inhaled), yersenia pestis (bubonic plague- no prefered portal)

What are some examples of disease that can cause disease using a specific mode of entry?

ID50

if the infectous dose for a sample of population is 50% how would you express this measurement of virulence?

the lower the number the higher the virulence

what does a low number in infectous dose or lethal dose measurements mean in regards to the virulence?

LD50

If the lethal dose for a sample of population is 50% how would you express this measurement?

letal kills and infectous get sick

what is the difference between lethal dose measurements and infectous dose measurements?

surface molecules called adhesins or ligands

In adherence how what helps the microbe adhere to the host?

biofilm

What is the term for communities of microbes and their products that attach to surfaces?

65%

Biofilm is what percentage of all bacterial infection?

penetrate the host cell

What must the microbe do to infect a host cell after it attaches to it?

plasma membrane

When the microbe attaches to the host cell it causes changes in the host cell what?

use of capsule, components of the cell wall (M protein), enzymes (such as coagulase, kinases, hyaluronidase, collagenase, IgA proteases), and antigenic variation

What are some of the ways that microbes employ evasion?

by using M protien

what components of a cell wall does a microbe in evasion?

coagulase

What enzyme clots fibrin?

shields microbe from WBC

How does the enzyme coagulase help the microbe in evasion?

kinase

what enzyme breaks down fibrin?

breaks away from blood clot when immune cells try to isolate the microbe

how does the enzyme kinase help the microbe in evasion?

hyaluronidase

what enzyme breaks down hyaluronic acid?

spreading factor (move through cells)

How does the enzyme hyaluronidase help the microbe in evasion?

collagenase

what enzyme breaks down collagen?

IgA proteases

what enzyme destroys IgA antibodies?

alters surface proteins so that it can not be fought with existing antibodies

How does the microbe use antigenic variation?

using host nutrients

How does the microbe damage the host tissues?

produce siderophores, siderophore bind to iron, siderophore binds to bacteria, bacterium takes siderophore inside

What are the step that the siderophores go through to get the nutrients (iron) and bring it back to the bacterium?

siderophores

what is the protein that bind iron stronger that hemoglobin

multiplying until cell ruptures, depriving host cell of needed nutrients, producing toxic waste products, and toxins

What is the direct damage to host tissues?

toxin

what is the poisonous substances that are mostly protein enzymes?

toxigenicity

what is the measure of the virulence of the toxin

toxemia

What is the term that refers to a toxin in the blood?

exotoxins and endotoxins

What are the two types of toxins?

exotoxins

What is the product that is produced by bacterium and secreted by proteins, is usually carried on plamid or prophage, diffuse easily into the blood, can be produced by gram negative and positive and is the most lethal substance known?

Antitoxins

What are the antibodies produced by the body that can bind to the exotoxin?

toxoid

What is the altered toxin used to stimulate the immune system?

diphtheria and tetanus

What are some examples of a toxoid?

botulism and staphylococcus food poisoning

What are some examples of disease cause by bacterium exotoxins?

active

In A-B toxins, the A is what part of the exotoxin?

binding

In A-B toxins the B is what part of the exotoxin?

A-B toxins

What kind of toxin inhibits protein synthesis and kills the cell?

membrane-disrupting toxins

What exotoxin causes lysis in the host cell plasma membrane?

Membran-disrupting toxins

What exotoxin makes proteins in the plasma membrane and disrupts the phospholipid layer?

leukocidins and hemolysins

What are some examples of membrane-disrupting toxins?

WBC

The membrane-disrupting toxin leukocidins is a toxin that kills what?

RBC

The membrane-disrupting toxin hemolysins is a toxin that kills what?

superantigens

What is the term for an intense immune response or a super immune response?

Endotoxin

What product produced by bacterium is part of the cell wall, produced by gram negatives only, part of the lipopolysaccharide and is only released when a cell wall is damaged?

pyrogenic reponse

This response is present when a Gram negative cell is ingested by a macrophage, the macrophage degrades bacterium and releases IL-1, IL-1 is carried through the blood vessels to hypothalamus, then the IL-1 causes the hypothalamus to reset at higher temperature?

Septic shock

This condition is due to a loss of blood pressure due to an endotoxin?

septic shock

When a bacterium is ingested by a macrophage, phagocyte produces tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a), and then TNF-a binds to capillaries making them permeable it causes this condition?

death

Septic shock can cause large amounts of fluids to be lost and may even cause what?

LD

Which measure (LD or ID) is used to express virulence of pathogens or toxins?

bacteria

In a biofilm what is the first layer?

biofilm

Dental plague, algae on a pool, and soap scum are all examples of what?

spreading factor (helps move through collagen)

How does the enzyme collgenase help with evasion?

neurotoxin

What exotoxins attack nerve cells?

enterotoxin

What exotoxin attacks GI tract cells?

cardiotoxin

What exotoxin attacks heart cells?

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