Neurotransmitter that causes muscle contraction and is involved in memory function.
A brief electrical impulse by which information is transmitted along the axon of a neuron.
Pair of endocrine glands that are involved in the human stress response.
can mimic effects of a neurotransmitter
The principle that either a neuron is sufficiently stimulated and an action potential occurs or a neuron is not sufficiently stimulated and an action potential does not occur.
linked to emotion; part of the limbic system
The partial or complete inability to articulate ideas or understand spoken or written language because of brain injury or damage.
areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
Autonomic nervous system
Subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions.
The long, fluid-filled tube that carries a neuron's messages to other body areas.
Branches at the end of the axon that contain tiny pouches, or sacs, called synaptic vesicles.
made up of several nuclei thought to be involved in controlling postural and movement patterns
a branch of psych concerned with the links between biology and behavior
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells; the brainstem is resp. for automatic survival functions
controls language expression, directs muscle movements involved in speech
Processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function; contains the cell's nucleus; also called the soma.
Central nervous system
Division of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord.
A large, two-sided hindbrain structure at the back of the brain; responsible for muscle coordination and maintaining posture and equilibrium.
The wrinkled outer portion of the forebrain, which contains the most sophisticated brain centers.
The nearly symmetrical left and right halves of the cerebral cortex.
The study of the neural basis of cognitive process that integrates contributions from psychology, neuroscience, and computer science.
A thick band of axons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and acts as a communication link between them.
The notion that different functions are located or localized in different areas of the brain.
Cortical localization or localization of function
The notion that different functions are located or localized in different areas of the brain.
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
a change in a cell's membrane potential, making it more positive, or less negative. In neurons and some other cells, a large enough depolarization may result in an action potential
Neurotransmitter involved int he regulation of bodily movement, thought processes, and rewarding sensations.
An instrument that produces a graphic record of the brain's electrical activity by using electrodes placed on the scalp.
System of glands located throughout the body that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Neurotranmitters that regulate pain perceptions.
when chemical reaction causes the postsynaptic neuron's sodium channels to open.
a tech. for revealing blood flow
The largest and most complex brain region, which contains centers for complex behaviors and mental processes, also called the cerebrum.
The largest lobe of each cerebral hemisphere; processes voluntary muscle movements and is involved in thinking, planning, and emotional control.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
A noninvasive imaging technique that uses magnetic fields to map brain activity by measuring changes in the brain's blood flow and oxygen levels.
The brain's ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas.
major inhibitory neurotransmitter (undersupply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia.
Support cells that assist neurons by providing structural support, nutrition, and removal of cell wastes; manufacture myelin.
a major excitatory neurotransmitter
The endocrine glands that secrete hormones that regulate sexual characteristics and reproductive processes; ovaries in females and testes in males.
A region at the base of the brain that contains several structures that regulate basic life functions.
A curved forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and is involved in learning and forming new memories
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands that are produced in one tissue and affect another
A peanut-sized forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and regulates behaviors related to survival, such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity.
the opposite of excitatory. makes it harder to fire neuron.
central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
1848-1905 German neurologist who in 1874 discovered an area on the left temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex that, when damaged, produces meaningless or nonsensical speech and difficulties in verbal or written comprehension.
Lateralization of function
The notion that specific psychological or cognitive functions are processed primarily on one side of the brain.
A group of forebrain structures that form a border around the brainstem and are involved in emotion, motivation, learning, and memory.
the deep groove which separates the two hemispheres of the vertebrate brain
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
A noninvasive imaging technique that produces highly detailed images of the brain using electromagnetic signals generated by the brain in response to magnetic fields.
A hindbrain structure that controls vital life functions such as breathing and circulation.
The middle and smallest brain region, involved in processing auditory and visual sensory information.
rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous sytem to the muscles and glands
a tech. that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce comp. generated images that distinguish among diff. types of soft tissue
A white, fatty covering wrapped around the axons of some neurons that increases their communication speed.
Bundles of neuron axons that carry inforation in the peripheral nervous system.
The primary internal communication network of the body; divided into the central nervous sytem and the peripheral nervous system.
interconnected neural cells;
Highly specialized cell that communicates information in electrical and chemical form; a nerve cell.
The study of the nervous system especially the brain.
Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons
Node of Ranvier
the gaps (approximately 1 micrometer in length) formed between the myelin sheaths generated by different cells.
helps control alertness and arousal; neurotransmitter(undersupply can depress mood)
includes the visual areas, located in the lack of the head
a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine system for the assistance in breaking down food for the absortion of nutrients.
Parasympathetic nervous system
Branch of the autonomic nervous system that maintains normal bodily functions and conserves the body's physical resources.
An area on each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex located above the temporal lobe that processes somatic sensations.
Peripheral nervous system
Division of the nervous system that includes all the nerves lying outside the central nervous system.
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
A discredited psuedosciencetific theory of the brain that claimed that personality characteristics, moral character, and intelligence could be determined by examining the bumps on a person's skull.
Pierre Paul Broca
1824-1880 French surgeon and neuroanatomist who in 1861 discovered an area on the lower left frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex that, when damaged, produces speech disturbances but no loss of comprehension.
Endocrine gland attached to the base of the brain that secretes hormones that affect the function of other glands as well as hormones that act directly on physical processes.
the brain's capacity for modification
polarization (resting potential)
when K+ flow out of channels leaving the inside negative once again
A hindbrain structure that connects the medulla to the two sides of the cerebellum; helps coordinate and integrate movements on each side of the body.
Positron emission tomography (PET scan)
An invasive imaging technique that provides color-coded images of brain activity by tracking the brain's use of radioactively tagged compound, such as glucose, oxygen, or a drug.
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
The time period from the beginning of the action potential to the return to resting state during which the membrane will not respond normally to additional stimuli
State in which a neuron is prepared to activate and communicate its message if it receives sufficient stimulation.
A network of nerve fibers located in the center of the medulla that helps regulate attention, arousal, and sleep.
The process by which neurotransmitters are released by one neuron, cross the synaptic gap, and affect adjoining neurons.
1913-1994 American psychologist who received the Nobel prize in 1981 for his pioneering research on brain specialization in split-brain patients.
registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
Type of neuron that conveys information to the brain from specialized receptor cells in sense organs and internal organs.
Neurotransmitter involved in sleep and emotions.
Somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
Simple, automatic behaviors that are processed in the spinal cord.
the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers between them
The minimum level of stimulation required to activate a particular neuron.
The brain's ability to change its physical structure in response to learning, active practice, or environmental influences.
An area of the midbrain that is involved in motor control and contains a large concentration of dopamine-producing neurons.
Sympathetic nervous system
Branch of the autonomic nervous system that produces a rapid physical arousal in response to perceived emergencies or threats.
The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite
The tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of an adjoining neuron.
The process through which neurotransmitters are released by one neuron, cross the synaptic gap, and affect adjoining neurons.
Tiny pouches or sacs in the axon terminals that contain chemicals called neurotransmitters.
An area of each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex near the temples that is the primary receiving area for auditory information.
lies above the ears, receives auditory info
A forebrain structure that processes sensory information for all senses, except smell, and relays it to the cerebral cortex.
controls language recpetion; involved in language comprehension and expression