Rational choice theory
is also known as choice theory or rational action theory, is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behavior... , Individuals maximize self-interest, by rationally making choices that result in the most personal reward, and individuals avoid choices that are not rewarding or otherwise costly. (Cohen& Felson)
Examines the meaning of abstract terms, such as 'good,' 'right,' 'justice,' and 'fairness.' While normative ethics addresses such questions as "What should one do?", thus endorsing some ethical evaluations and rejecting others, meta-ethics addresses questions such as "What is goodness?" and "How can we tell what is good from what is bad?", seeking to understand the nature of ethical properties and evaluations.
dominant model of human nature
humans have dual nature mental and bodily... each of us has a will which is free to act, though we may differ in the extent of our will power... reason giudes our will.
moral decision making
repersents a special case of rational choice.. where preferences over the outcome of actions are based on more then self interests.
a mental process in which a moral agent: (1) partially or completely recognizes his/her own unique set of viable options in a given situation, moral principles, and (2) partially or completely evaluates the good and bad points of each of the viable options, alternitive actions, in the set in terms of an ultimate evaluative standard, (3) in order to make a good informed choice in the given situation. also the ability to apply them.
A conclusion regarding whether a particular moral standard is applicable to a particular situation..verison one; judgement as conscious reasoning (thinking).. verison two; judgement as intuition (feeling).
the thought processes people use to solve moral dilemmas.. delvelopment of moral agruments which include two premises and and a conclusion.
Aims at validity. If the premises are true, and the inference is valid, then the conclusion must be true.
An inference in which it is asserted that the conclusion has a high probability of being true if the premises are true. , based on observations (from specific to general).
do good; avoid evil, do unto others as you would want them to do to you; the end does not justify the means; follow what nature intends
a rational person possesses inherent power to assess the correctness of actions
an implicit agreement among people that results in the organization of society
The view that a least some moral claims are objectively true (i.e., true irrespective of what the individual or culture happens to think). Objectivist views include Utilitarianism, Kantianism, Divine Command Theory, Moral Egoism, Virtue Theory, etc.
the belief that there are no values or morals in the universe, that existence is senseless or useless
The view that there is no absolute or universal moral law or truth, resulting in a morality determined by cultural factors or personal preference.
A metaethical thesis the truth or falsity of moral judgements, or their justification, is not absolute or universal, but is relative to the traditions, convictions, or practices of a group of persons.
We think we observe one event preceding another event, but all we really observe is one event causing another event...., Scottish. wrote AN ENQUIRY CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING (1748) - only perception existed, either as impressions of material objects or as ideas. greatest work. Skeptic- nothing is certain. accused of athieism- said he wasnt sure god existed; argued that there was no basis for christianity. wrote A TREATISE OF HUMAN NATURE in 1739. agrued inductive inference.
Logical positivism (also known as logical empiricism, scientific philosophy, and neo-positivism) is a philosophy that combines empiricism—the idea that observational evidence is indispensable for knowledge—with a version of rationalism incorporating mathematical and logico-linguistic constructs and deductions of epistemology. It may be considered as a type of analytic philosophy.
He gave the most sophisticated defense of emotivism in the post-war period. In his papers "The Emotive Meaning of Ethical Terms" (1937) and "Persuasive Definitions" (1938), and his book Ethics and Language (1944), he developed a theory of emotive meaning; which he then used to provide a foundation for his theory of a persuasive definition. He furthermore advanced emotivism as a meta-ethical theory that sharply delineated between cognitive, scientific uses of language (used to state facts and to give reasons, and subject to the laws of science) and non-cognitive uses (used to state feelings and exercise influence).
the theory that people always act in their own self interest, whether they know it or not
the theory that people ought to act in their own self interest
a particular "game" between two captured prisoners that illustrates why cooperation is difficult to maintain even when it is mutually beneficial.
Highest Value: Moral realism, no objective values or duties a part of the values of the world
2 main argument against objectivity - Relativity and Queerness
-Relativity ( There is a variance in moral codes through time periods and variance among groups)
-Queerness: Epistemological and Metaphysical (he shifts the burden of proof - how could these possibly exist as properties in the world and how could we perceive them)
Baier attempted to answer the question by interpreting morality as a system of reasons of mutual benefit that are appropriate for contexts in which everyone's following self-interested reasons would have suboptimal results for everyone. So interpreted, moral reasons apply only when there exists an adequate enforcement system that makes acting against those reasons unprofitable. Morality so construed never requires any degree of altruism or self-sacrifice; it only requires that people act upon reasons of mutual benefit. Given this interpretation of morality, it is not possible for the egoist to do better by acting against morality. So construed, morality and egoism do not really conflict.
evaluates alternative behavioral strategies in situations where the outcome depends on each individual's strategy and the strategy of other individuals
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
an interdisciplinary effort to understand the mind; includes the disciplines of cognitive psychology, philosophy, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and anthropology
reciprocal altruism / vampire bats
behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future/