Medical Terminology Male Reproductive System

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Testis, or testicles

primary male sex organs, paired, oval-shaped, and enclosed in a sac called the scrotum

Sperm

the microscopic male germ cell, which, when united with the ovum, produces a zygote that with subsequent development becomes an embryo

testosterone

the principal male sex hormone. Its chief function is to stimulate the development of the male reproductive organs and secondary sex characteristics such as facial hair

seminiferous tubules

approximately 900 coiled tubes within the testes in which spermatogenesis occurs

epididymis

coiled duct atop each of the testes that provides for storage, transit, and maturation of spermatazoa; continuous with the vas deferens

vas deferens, ductus deferens, or seminal duct

duct carrying the sperm from the epididymis to the urethra. The spermatic cord encloses each vas deferens with nerves, lymphatics, arteries, and veins. The urethra also connects with the urinary bladder and carries urine outside the body. A circular muscle constricts during intercourse to prevent urination

seminal vesicles

two main glands located at the base of the bladder that open into the vas deferens. The glands secrete a thick fluid, which forms part of the semen

prostate gland

encircles the upper end of the urethra. The prostate gland secretes a fluid that aids in the movement of the sperm and ejaculation.

scrotum

sac suspended on both sides of and just behind the penis. The testes are enclosed in the scrotum

penis

male organ of urination and copulation (sexual intercourse)

glans penis

enlarged tip on the end of the penis

prepuce

fold of skin covering the glans penis in uncircumcised males

semen

composed of sperm, seminal fluids, and other secretions

genitalia (genitals)

reproductive organs (male or female)

balan/o

glans penis

epididym/o

epididymis

orchid/o. orchi/o, orch/o, test/o

testis, testicles

prostat/o

prostate gland

vas/o

vessel, duct

vesicul/o

seminal vesicle

andr/o

male

sperm/o, spermat/o

spermatozoon, sperm

anorchism

state of absence of testis

balantis

inflammation of the glans penis

balanorrhea

discharge from the glans penis

benign prostatic hyperplasia

excessive development pertaining to the prostate gland

cryptorchidism

state of hidden testis

epididymitis

inflammation of an epididymis

orchiepididymitis

inflammation of the testes and epididymis

orchitis, orchiditis, or testitis

inflammation of the testis or testicle

prostatitis

inflammation of the prostate gland

prostatocystitis

inflammation of the prostate gland and bladder

prostatolith

stone in the prostate

prostatorrhea

discharge from the prostate gland

prostatovesiculitis

inflammation of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles

-ism

state of

erectile dysfunction (ED)

the inability of the male to attain or maintain an erection sufficient to perform sexual intercourse (formerly called incontinence)

hydrocele

scrotal swelling caused by a collection of fluid

phimosis

a tightness of the prepuce that prevents its retraction over the glans penis; it may be congenital or a result of balanitis. Circumcision is the usual treatment

priapism

persistent abnormal erection of the penis accompanied by pain and redness

prostate cancer

cancer of the prostate gland, usually occurring later in life

testicular cancer

cancer of the testicles, usually occurring in men 15 to 35 years of age

testicular torsion

twisting of the spermatic cord causing decreased blood flow to the testis; occurs most often during puberty and often presents with a sudden onset of severe testicular or scrotal pain. Because of lack of blood flow to the testis, it is often considered a surgical emergency

varicocele

enlarged veins of the spermatic cord

balanoplasty

surgical repair of the glans penis

epididymectomy

excision of an epididymis

vasectomy

excision of a duct (partial excision of the vas deferens bilaterally, resulting in male sterilization

vasovasostomy

creation of artificial openings between ducts (the severed ends of the vas deferens are reconnected in an attempt to restore fertility in men who have had a vasectomy)

vesiculectomy

excision of the seminal vesicle(s)

circumcision

surgical removal of the glans prepuce

hydrocelectomy

surgical removal of a hydrocele

radical prostatectomy (RP)

excision of the prostate gland with its capsule, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, and sometimes pelvic lymph nodes; performed by a retropubic or perineal approach, or laparoscopically; used to treat prostate cancer

suprapubic prostatectomy

excision of the prostate gland through an abdominal incision made above the pubic bone and through an incision in the bladder; used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

transurethral incision of the prostate gland (TUIP)

a surgical procedure that widens the urethra by making a few small incisions in the bladder neck and prostate gland.

transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT)

a treatment that eliminates excess tissue present in benign prostatic hyperplasia by using heat generated by microwave

transurethral resection of the prostate gland (TURP)

surgical removal of pieces of the prostate gland tissue by using a resectoscope inserted through the urethra. The capsule is left intact; usually performed when the enlarged prostate gland interferes with urination

Cooled ThermoTherapy Device

delivers precise microwavable energy to heat and destroy prostate tissue while a cooling mechanism protects surrounding tissue

Photoselective vaporization of the prostate gland (PVP)

uses a laser system operated through a cytoscope inserted through the urethra to the prostate gland. Overgrown prostate tissue is vaporized using heat generated by the laser

transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)

an ultrasound procedure used to diagnose prostate cancer. Sound waves are sent and received by a transducer in the form of a probe that is placed into the rectum. The sound waves are transformed into an image of the prostate gland

prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

blood test that measures the level of prostate-specific antigen in the blood. Elevated test results may indicate the presence of the prostate cancer or excess prostate tissue, as found in benign prostatic hyperplasia

semen analysis

microscopic observation of ejaculated semen, revealing the size, structure, and movement of sperm; used to evaluate male infertility and to determine the effectiveness of a vasectomy

digital rectal examination (DRE)

a physical examination in which the physician inserts a finger into the rectum and feels for the size and shape of the prostate gland through the rectal wall. Used to screen for BPH and cancer of the prostate. BPH usually presents as a uniform, nontender enlargement, whereas cancer usually presents as a stony hard nodule

andropathy

disease of the male

aspermia

condition of being without sperm

oligospermia

condition of scanty sperm

spermatolysis

dissolution (destruction) of sperm

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

a disease that affects the body's immune system, transmitted by exchange of body fluid during the sexual act, reuse of contaminated needles, or receiving contaminated blood transfusions

artificial insemination

introduction of semen into the vagina by artificial means

azoospermia

lack of live sperm in the semen

chlamydia

a sexually transmitted disease, sometimes referred to as a silent STD because many people are not aware they have the disease. Symptoms that occur when the disease becomes serious are painful urination and discharge from the penis in men and genital itching, vaginal discharge, and bleeding between menstrual periods in women. The causative agent is C. trachomatis.

coitus

sexual intercourse between male and female (also called copulation)

condom

cover for the penis worn during coitus to prevent conception and the spread of STD

ejaculation

ejection of semen form the male urethra

genital herpes

sexually transmitted disease caused by Herpesvirus hominis type 2 (also called herpes simplex virus)

gonads

male and female sex glands

gonorrhea

contagious, inflammatory sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterial organism that affects the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system

heterosexual

person who is attracted to a member of the opposite sex

homosexual

person who is attracted to ta member of the same sex

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

a type of retrovirus that causes AIDS. HIV infects T-helper cells of the immune system, allowing for opportunistic infections such as candidiasis, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, tuberculosis, and Kaposi sarcoma

human papillovirus (HPV)

a prevalent sexually transmitted disease causing benign or cancerous growths in male and female genitals (also called venereal warts)

infertility

reduced or absent ability to produce offspring

orgasm

climax of sexual stimulation

puberty

period when secondary sex characteristics develop and the ability to reproduce sexually begins

sexually transmitted disease (STD)

diseases, such as syphilis, gonorrhea, and genital herpes, transmitted during sexual contract (also called venereal disease and sexually transmitted infection (STI))

sterilization

process that renders an individual unable to produce offspring

syphilis

chronic infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum, which usually is transmitted by sexual contact, may be acquired in utero, or (less often) contracted through direct contact with infected tissue. If untreated, the infection usually progresses through three clinical stages with a latent period. The initial local infection quickly becomes systemic with widespread dissemination of the bacterium

trichomoniasis

a sexually transmitted disease caused by a one-cell organism, Trichomonas. It infects the genitourinary tract. Men may be asymptomatic or may develop urethritis, an enlarged prostate gland, or epididymitis. Women have vaginal itching, dysuria, and vaginal or urethral discharge

AIDS

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

BPH

benign prostatic hyperplasia

DRE

digital rectal examination

ED

erectile dysfunction

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

HPV

human papillovirus

PSA

prostate-specific antigen

RP

radical prostatectomy

STD

sexually transmitted disease

TRUS

transrectal ultrasound

TUIP

transurethral incision of the prostate

TUMT

transurethral microwave therapy

TURP

transurethral resection of the prostate

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