-The Renaissance stimulated a commercial revival, and the commercial revival stimulated the Renaissance.
WHEN: 11th and 12th century.
-By the 12th century, city states like Venice grew wealthy through international trade.
The Medici Family (Cosimo & Lorenzo)
WHO: A rich, ruling family (Signori)
WHAT: Made Florence strong enough to survive the disasters of the 14th century.
-The city states were controlled by the nobility
- But the people wanted independence from the nobility.
-MERCHANTILE ARISTOCRACY= People who got their money through selling things. They have just as much money as the nobles, but lacked a title. (Example: Danglars)
- The nobles were running out of money, but still had a title, so they would marry members of the merchantile aristocracy class.
- POPOLO= The common, poor people who were disenfranchised (couldn't vote).
- SIGNORI= A group or a person who are made out of the urban aritocrat and merchantile aristocrat families.
The 5 Major Powers in Italy
1. Papal States- Ruled by the popes and sometimes a family
2. Milan - Ruled by the Sforza family
3. Naples- Dominated by the French and the Spanish.
4. Venice- Oligarchy. Most of their money came from slave trade.
5. Florence- Ruled by the Medici family.
THINGS THAT ITALIAN CITY-STATES GAVE US:
1. Balance of power in politics
2. Resident ambassadors.
- Inability to have alliances, which made them weak.
WHO: A fiery man of the church. Rallied against undemocratic government and secularization in Florence. Turns Florence into a theocracy, but Florence is too secularized to have a theocracy and decide to burn him at the stake. Oops!
WHAT: Didn't like the materialistic side of the church. Didn't like secularization. Believed in cloisterization.
WHY: Reflected the vulnerability and chaos in the Italian city-states
WHEN: Late 1400s (after French invade)
WHERE: Fought in Italy
WHO: Hapsburg= Spanish and Germans and Valois= French
The Sack of Rome
WHERE: Rome. Duh.
WHO: King Charles
WHAT: King Charles sacked Rome with his Christian army.
WHY: Symbolized the fade of the Renaissance in Italy
Artisans during the Renaissance
WHAT: An artisan is someone who has a refined and special method of doing something. A craftsman.
- The artisans in Italy during the Renaissance began to create art. They transitioned from artisans to artists.
- Promoted not the making of money, but what money can buy.
WHY: This was a secular idea. No longer did people live according to the CITY OF GOD, but they began to appreciate the beauty on Earth.
SUMMARY of Renaissance Art
- People re-discovered the ancient classics: Art, politics, patriotism, law, literature, poetry, education.
- Renaissance art was manipulated by the oligarchs to their advantage, which was secularization.
- People were cloistered in the Middle Ages, but the people of the Renaissance decided to venture out into the world to see what it had to offer.
WHY: Political and dcultural turmoil. Which is better: To live by the CITY OF GOD, or to use the talents and powers that God gave you? People began to live life to the fullest.
WHAT: The search for a connection and relationship with God.
- The churches in the North relied more on the church to communicate with God than the Southern churches. This is why the Protestant Reformation caught on faster in teh South than the North.
WHEN: Began in the Middle Ages, but prominent during the Renaissance.
ANNATE= The first year's salary of a bishop (paid by taxes).
WHAT: The study of Plato, Aristotle, and the classics.
- During the Middle Ages, the church didn't like people studying pagan philosophers, but people liked their thoughts and ideas during the Renaissance.
- Studied politics and spirituality
WHEN: Early Italian Renaissance
WHO: Historian, statesman, writer.First modern historian. First to divide history into antiquity, medieval, and modern.
WHAT: Believed in activity. Wanted social and civic consciousness.1370-1440
- WROTE "History of the Florentine People". Translates many Greek and other works into Latin.
WHEN: Around the spread of humanism, early 1500s
WHAT: Living up to one's potential and the succesful use of the powers of humans. Women can have it, but mostly men.
- These ideas were reflected in Renaissance art and architecture.
- COUNTERCURRENTS, like Savonarola, didn't like the worldiness that the Renaissance brought.
WHO: The father of humanism.
WHAT: Denounced the boring scholastics
- Wrote about the love, beauty, and nature.
- Appreciated both ancient and modern-day literature
- Was in love with Laura and wrote a lot of poetry about her.
WHERE: Avignon, France
- He was the first author to write about enjoying this life instead of the next---> MODERN
WHAT: The emphasis on human achievement and the study of the classics.
WHO: Cisero really influenced humanism.
WHAT: A philosophy of education and literary movement.
- Scholastics were people who reconciled and combined pagan philosophy and Christian philosophy.
- Instead of writing with the boring, monkish Latin used by the clergy during the Middle Ages, humanists would write with a different, beautiful Latin.
- Humanists would consider the Ancient Greeks their kindred spirits, so they would copy the ancient philosphers' styles and techniques to impact the modern-day philosophy, art, and literature.starts in the 1300s
-Petrarch (Father of Humanism)
WHERE: Italy, spreads to North
WHAT: Literary movement distinct from the writing of the Middle Ages. Considered writing a profession, drew on antiquity, wrote in Italian, and basically created the first European vernacular language.
WHO: Wrote the DECAMERON.
WHO: Father of textual criticism (which is looking at a manuscript to see if it's valid or not). Had a lot to do with scholarly activity.
WHAT: Figured out that the DONATION OF CONSTANTINE wasn't valid.
- Latin was still taught, but Greek was also incorporated.
- Rederic (the use of language to influence people) became important, which heightened communication.
- Civic consciousness was taught.
WHO: Wrote the COURTIER
- Taught us how to behave maturely and to be agreeable, to appreciate the feelings of others, and an effortless way of showing education without bragging
- The Courtier was the first modern book of etiquette.
WHERE: Italy and all over Europe
Glock and Cloche (Clocks)
WHEN: By the early 1300s, clocks were common in Italy. By the 1380s, clocks were common in France.
WHY does the measurement of time become more important?
- Cities and towns sprang up everywhere, and people needed to know what time shops opened and closed.
- Europeans didn't invent clocks, but they were the first to put them to good use.
WHY: These inventions and improvements put Europe at a distinct advantage, which allowed them to succeed.
WHAT: The status of women actually DECLINED during the Renaissance, even though there were a few authors, artists, and actresses who were women.
- The Renaissance girls received an almost equal education as the boys, but they used their education to attract the liberati (smart people) to their households.
- If they had jobs, they were jobs like maids, seamstresses, cooks, or midwives.
So WHY were women treated worse in the Renaissance than during the Middle Ages?
- As men became more independent and realized how humans were given power and talent, they used this power at the expense of women.
WHERE: Pretty much everywhere in Europe except for Italy
- In the North, there's still a pursuit of scholasticism and knowledge.
- By the 16th century, the German States have become a major center.
Because a new German banking family, the Fugers.
- Still a strong dependence on the church
Northern Renaissance Art
- Had little interest in classical antiquity because of their location.
- Often depicted everyday life.
MANNERISM= Artists were pretty much copying other artists, so they began to find their own style.
- Made two self portraits, one that looked like Jesus
WHAT: Founded the Brothers and Sisters of Common Life, which was an educational institution like boarding school.
- Erasmus was taught there.
- Emphasized reading, writing, and the modern devotion (charity, humity, tolerence).
WHAT: Aware of the need for a reform in the church but never did leave the church.
- Friends with Martin Luther
- Wrote PRAISE OF FOLLY, which satirized the worldliness and corruption of the church.
- Wrote HANDBOOK OF THE CHRISTIAN KNIGHT, which was trying to tell the prince how he could be a Christian and a good prince at the same time.
WHEN: Between the 1460's and the 1530's
WHY: Showed a scholarly understanding of the world. Critical of the corruption in man's institutions, especially the church.
WHO: Lawyer, monk (sort of), ambassador, author
- His home was the model for the Christian household.
- Wrote UTOPIA, which described the ideal community in which the children were educated in the classics and there was social equality.
- Early Communism
- Wanted to improve public institutions
Rabelais (Gargantua and Pantragruel)
WHO: Northern Renaissance author
- Wrote GARGANTUA and PANTAGRUEL, which were comic masterpieces.
- Underneath the humor, he wrote about religion, politics, philosophy, and education.
- Satarized people who were full of themselves because they were educated.
WHY: Not every Northern humanist was lofty and Christian.
WHEN: Early 1500s
Two political things came out of the Italian city-state system:
1. Balance of power
2. Diplomats/ ambassadors
- Secular governments
WHO did the king buddy up with during the High Renaissance?
- "The prince will make laws that are best for the people"
WHO: Founder of the Tudor line. Representative of the house of Lancaster. Killed the guy in charge of the house of York, but then married his daughter.
- Passed laws AGAINST livery and maintenence, which meant that nobody could have private horses or armies except for the king! Mwahaha!
- WAR OF ROSES= Around 1455
- Developed nationalist pride and administrative monarchy, like the star chamber
WHY: Brought order to a disorderly country. Some people thought he was a despot.
WHO: Louis XI is considered "the new monarch"
WHAT: Brought feelings of nationalism and pride. When a new king, who isn't related to any other king rules (like Henry VII).
Charles VII/ Taille/ The Gabelle
WHAT: Laid the foundation for new monarchies.
- Signed the PRAGMATIC SANCTION OF BOURGES (WHEN: 1438)
- Got rid of annates (the first year salary of the pope)
- Now the pope can't choose cardinals, bishops, or archbishops in France anymore! Ruh roh!
- This gave the king more power.
- French churches became GALLICAN= Still catholic, but a lot less so.
- Passed the TAILLE= Temporary tax used to build royal army.
WHO: "The new monarch" Charles VII's son (even though he hated him). Nicknamed "the universal spider" because he was secretive, reclusive, and superstitious.
WHAT: Made the TAILLE a permanant tax and actually built the royal army. Also promoted the silk industry
WHEN: Right after the 100 YEARS WAR
Ferdinand & Isabella
- Joined their areas that they ruled including guess what! America! All that became Spain
- Played a big part in the Spanish Inquisition
-Written in the early language of the common people
-This had a huge impact on national consciousness.
-The LACK of vernacular literature strengthened the division between the upper and lower classes.
WHAT: Wrote the DIVINE COMEDY.
WHY: It's modern. It was written in the vernacular. This was the beginning of the end of Latin. It was also a mix of secular knowledge and religious knowledge.
WHO: Secretary to the king, tutor for the children of court. Official court scribe and poet on the side.
WHAT: Wrote the CANTERBURY TALES.
-Loved the sea, and taught the mother of Henry the Navigator.
-The stories from the Canterbury Tales mix secular and religious ideas together, making the Canterbury Tales modern!
WHO: A criminal who wrote poetry in the language of street-talk.
WHAT: Wrote THE GRAND TESTAMENT.
WHEN: Late Medieval era
-Lais was his first work, which was a farcical satire, and The Grand Testament was his second work, which was more serious.
-Celebrated the happiness of being alive.
Christine de Pisan
WHO: A well-educated woman writer.
WHAT: Wrote CITY OF LADIES/ CITY OF WOMEN and THE BOOK OF THREE VIRTUES.
-Some people could read, some could write, and some could do both.
WHEN: Between the 5th and 13th centuries, most people could NOT read. The few who could were usually in the clergy.
-People were beginning to become more literate before the invention of the PRINTING PRESS, but when the printing press was invented (during the 1450's), literacy increased a lot!
WHO: People in the church who got their positions because of their nobility, rather than getting ordained (the normal way).
So WHY were people becoming more educated during the Renaissance?
-Society became more complex. More trade, commerce, and growing governmental bureaucracy.
-Europeans became more secularized.
-By the 15th century, the old, oral culture became the new, literary culture.
-They were BAD.
-The nobility would massacre them.
WHAT: An institution. A sacrament of the church.
-Marriage brings together the Church and State in the USA, but not in Europe.
-MARCHET= A fine paid to the lord for a woman's marriage. Still done in the 14th century.
BANNS- A public announcement of marriage. Prevented invalid marriage.
WHY: The reason why we're so concerned about marriage during the Renaissance is because every marriage economically impacted the whole village.
- Created economic stability and political power.
WHEN: 13th-17th Centuries
WHERE: From Estonia, down the Baltic to Germany
WHAT: An economic alliance of trading cities and their merchant guilds that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe.
WHAT: Some kind of cult that worshiped the god Hermes or something.
WHEN: 19th Century
WHO: Historian who says revival of ancient learning and moving away from Christian church gave rise to new secular values.
League of Venice
WHERE: Includes Venice, Holy Roman Empire, and Spain. Later Milan joins
WHAT: Ferdinand gets mad at the French trying to take Italy (he wants it) and makes a power-alliance against them.
Ludovico il Moro:
WHO: Despot of Milan
WHAT: After he joins the PEACE OF LODI, he gets mad when Naples teams up with Florence and the Borgia Pope. So he invites the French to help him, which starts the French involvement in Italy (NOT A GOOD IDEA DUDE.) Charles VIII invades Italy.
Peace of Lodi
WHERE: Milan, Naples & Florence
WHAT: Peace agreement between these three city-states, and establishes boundaries between cities
-Established a balance of power politics in Italy, rise of diplomacy, ends of warring Italian states, sets stage for the Renaissance to be able to happen (no war).
Pope Alexander IV
WHEN: 1490-1520 roughly
WHAT: Wanted French favor to get control of Romagna, so he annulled Louis XII's marriage to someone's sister and made the archbishop of Rouen a cardinal. Withdraws from LEAGUE OF VENICE, weakening them too much so they can't resist a French reconquest, and they French come back into Milan.
Pope Julius II
WHEN: Early 1500s
WHAT: Thouroughly secular papacy, raises Renaissance papacy to hightest point,
- "Julius Excluded From Heaven" by ERASMUS,
Formed Holy League with Spain & Venice, Max. I, and the Swiss.
WHEN: 1400s (Transition)
WHAT: Italian word for 1400. Transition from late Middle Ages to early Renaissance.
-Serfdom says au revoir,
-Larger nation-states & eradication of fiefdoms,
-Papacy gains power,
-New merchants and trader class
- Died trying to make an heir to the throne
WHAT: Brought Britanny into French control
WHO: First Renaissance king
WHAT: Got rid of the PRAGMATIC SANCTION OF BOURGES.
WHY did he do that?
To get back on the church's good side :)
- So the pope gets annates again, but Francis I still had most of the power.