Enzyme, usually present in small amounts, that controls the rate of a metabolic pathways by regulation one of its steps.
Organic compound other than a carbohydrate, lipid, or protein needed for normal metabolism but that the body connot synthesize in adequate amounts and must therefore be obtained in the diet.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells.
Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)
A nucleotide consisting of adenine, ribose, and two phosphate groups; formed by the removal of one phosphate from an ATP molecule.
Process by which oxygen combines with another chemical reaction; Removal of hydrogen or loss of electron; The opposite of reduction.
Citric acid cycle
Series of chemical reactions that oxidizes certain molecules, releasing energy; Krebs cycle.
Electron transport chain
Series of oxidation- reduction reaction that takes high energy electrons from glycolysis.
Organic compound formed from pyruvic acid during the anaerobic reaction of cellular respiration.
Deoxyribonucleuc acid (DNA)
The genetic material; a double-standed polymer of nucleotides, each containing a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base (adenine, thymine, guanine, or cytosine), and the sugar deoxyribose; DNA
Information for synthesizing proteins encoded in the nucleotide sequence of DNA molecules.
Type of nitrogen-containing base that is part of DNA and RNA and has two organic rings; adenine and guanine.
Type of nitrogen-containing base that is part of DNA and RNA and has two organic rings; thymine, cytosinr, and uracil.
Complementary base pairs
Hydrogen bonded adenine and thymine or guanine and cytosine in DNA. Adenine bonds to uracil in RNA.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Single stranded polymer of nucleotides, in which each nucleotide includes a phosphate group, a nitrogen-containing base (adenine, uracil, cytosine, or guanine), and the sugar ribose; RNA.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
Set of three nucleotides of a messenger RNA molecule corresponding to one of the 20 types of amino acids
Assembly of an amino acid chain according to the sequence of base triplets in an mRNA molecule.
A sequence of three bases of a tRNA molecule that pairs with the complementary three-nucleotide codon of an mRNA molecule during protein synthesis.
DNA Damage Response
A group of reactions that enable a cell to repair certain types of DNA changes that occur during replication.
Genetic code is transferred from DNA to?
mRNA (is a single stranded chain derived from DNA which contains a sequence of nucleotides and their genetic codes. *condons)
Leads to the formation of pyruvic acid (If there is a lot of oxygen within a cell the end product of glycolysis would be pyruvic acid.)
Metabolic processes that break down larger molecules into smaller ones consitute catabolism.
Enzymes function in chemical reactions to ____________________.
lower the energy of activation needed to start the reaction.
In order for the energy stored in proteins to be converted into ATP.
amine groups first need to be removed
The rate of aerobic respiration can be increased when _________ is at low concentrations in cells.