Cellular Metabolism

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Cellular Metabolism

Enzymes

Protein that catalyzes a specific biochemical reaction.

Metabolism

The chemical reaction in cells that uses or releases energy.

Hydrolysis

(An example of catabolism) Enzyatically adding a water molecule to split a molecule.

Active sites

Part of an enzyme that temporarily binds a substance.

Substrate

Target of enzyme action.

Enzyme Catalysis

Substrate+Enzyme--> Enzyme- substrate complex--> Product+Enzyme (unchanged)

Metabolic Pathways

Series of linked, enzymatically controlled chemical reactions.

Rate-limiting enzyme

Enzyme, usually present in small amounts, that controls the rate of a metabolic pathways by regulation one of its steps.

Cofactor

Small molecule or ion that must combine with an enzyme for activity.

Coenzyme

Non protein organic molecule required for the activity of a particular enzyme.

Vitamins

Organic compound other than a carbohydrate, lipid, or protein needed for normal metabolism but that the body connot synthesize in adequate amounts and must therefore be obtained in the diet.

Energy

An ability to move something and thus do work.

Cellular Respiration

A biochemical pathway that releases energy from organic compounds.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells.

Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)

A nucleotide consisting of adenine, ribose, and two phosphate groups; formed by the removal of one phosphate from an ATP molecule.

Phosphorylation

Metabolic process that adds a phosphate to an organic molecule.

Oxidation

Process by which oxygen combines with another chemical reaction; Removal of hydrogen or loss of electron; The opposite of reduction.

Glycolysis

The energy-releasing breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid during cellular respiration.

Citric acid cycle

Series of chemical reactions that oxidizes certain molecules, releasing energy; Krebs cycle.

Electron transport chain

Series of oxidation- reduction reaction that takes high energy electrons from glycolysis.

Areobic

The breakdown of pyruvate in the presence of oxygen

Anaerobic

Chemical reactions that do not require the presence of oxygen

Lactic Acid

Organic compound formed from pyruvic acid during the anaerobic reaction of cellular respiration.

Acetyl coenzyme A

Intermediate compound produced from the oxidation of carbohydrates and fats.

Deoxyribonucleuc acid (DNA)

The genetic material; a double-standed polymer of nucleotides, each containing a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base (adenine, thymine, guanine, or cytosine), and the sugar deoxyribose; DNA

Genetic code

Information for synthesizing proteins encoded in the nucleotide sequence of DNA molecules.

Genome

Complete set of genetic instructions for an organism.

Purines

Type of nitrogen-containing base that is part of DNA and RNA and has two organic rings; adenine and guanine.

Pyrimidines

Type of nitrogen-containing base that is part of DNA and RNA and has two organic rings; thymine, cytosinr, and uracil.

Complementary base pairs

Hydrogen bonded adenine and thymine or guanine and cytosine in DNA. Adenine bonds to uracil in RNA.

Replication

copying of DNA molecule.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

Single stranded polymer of nucleotides, in which each nucleotide includes a phosphate group, a nitrogen-containing base (adenine, uracil, cytosine, or guanine), and the sugar ribose; RNA.

Transcription

Manufacturing a complementary RNA and DNA.

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell

Condons

Set of three nucleotides of a messenger RNA molecule corresponding to one of the 20 types of amino acids

Translation

Assembly of an amino acid chain according to the sequence of base triplets in an mRNA molecule.

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

RNA molecule that carries an amino acid to a ribosome in protein synthesis.

Anticodon

A sequence of three bases of a tRNA molecule that pairs with the complementary three-nucleotide codon of an mRNA molecule during protein synthesis.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

Type of RNA that forms part of the ribosome.

Mutations

Change in gene.

DNA Damage Response

A group of reactions that enable a cell to repair certain types of DNA changes that occur during replication.

Anabolism

Provides all the materials required for cellular growth and repair.

Direct products of the Citric Acid Cycle

Carbon dioxid and ATP

Amylase

Catalyze the breakdown of Starches

Genetic code is transferred from DNA to?

mRNA (is a single stranded chain derived from DNA which contains a sequence of nucleotides and their genetic codes. *condons)

Areobic metabolism

Leads to the formation of pyruvic acid (If there is a lot of oxygen within a cell the end product of glycolysis would be pyruvic acid.)

Thymine

Only found in DNA

New glucose can be produced by the liver from?

Lactic acids

Catabolism

Metabolic processes that break down larger molecules into smaller ones consitute catabolism.

What decreases in amount during cellular respiration?

ADP

What are the final end products of the electron transport chain?

ATP and water

The presence of _____ is an indication that glucose has been completely oxidized.

carbon dioxide

Respiration yields _____ as a gaseous waste product.

carbon dioxide

Enzymes function in chemical reactions to ____________________.

lower the energy of activation needed to start the reaction.

The substrate for lipase would be?

Fats

What substances would decrease in amount during cellular respiration?

Oxygen

Before entering the Kreb cycle, pyruvic acid must be converted to a/an _____ molecule.

citric acid

Transcription of mRNA starts when?

RNA polymerase binds to the promotor of the gene.

In order for the energy stored in proteins to be converted into ATP.

amine groups first need to be removed

The genetic code is transferred from DNA to _____.

mRNA

The rate of aerobic respiration can be increased when _________ is at low concentrations in cells.

ATP

The reactions of the krebs cycle occur in/on the?

matrix of the mitochondria

How many net ATP molecules result from glycolysis?

2 ATP molecules

Which of the following results in the greatest amount of ATP?

electron transport

What is true about aerobic respiration?

energy being released and transferred to form ATP molecules

In the Kreb cycle, the acetyl coenzyme A combines with _____ to form citric acid.

oxaloacetic acid

The enzymes in carbohydrate catabolism can be controlled (regulated) such that during exercise?

The metabolic rate can increase by 5-10 times

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