the scientific method
1. make observations
2. test hypotheses (Identify controls)
3. develop theories (analyze)
4. scientific laws (abstract)
numeric problem solving steps
1. analyze (know and find list)
3. evaluate (check answer)
What do changes in free energy enable?
They allow one to predict whether a reaction will actually occur under a given condition.
trying to figure out what to test by eliminating other parts of the procedures that effect the experiment
the person being experimented on doesn't know what the effect is - influences on experiment with placebo effect
double blind experiment
neither the person being experimented on nor the person conducting the experiment know the effect of the experiment
what are the possibilities of conclusions of an experiment?
1. data supports hypothesis
-is it supported well enough statistically?
2. data doesn't support hypothesis
-what needs to be changed? the hypothesis? do more experiments? modify the experiement?
3. data does not support or disprove hypothesis
upon completing an experiment, what should you ask yourself?
How do you need to modify your experiment?
how close to the theoretical answer something is.
-how close of units measured
-do you know what the theoretical amount is supposed to be?
Why is there greater error with a measuring tool with a wider tube?
A wider tube enables a greater curve of the meniscus therefore skewing your measurements.
With metric unit conversions, add the numerical change to
the base unit - keep the unit with the prefix without a coefficient
how do you divide 2 numbers in scinot?
divide the coefficients and subtract the divisor exponent from the dividend exponent
how do you add/subtract 2 numbers in scinot?
convert to the same exponent, then add or subtract the coefficients
the correct value for the measurement based on reliable references (the accurate value)
instruments that differ in the number of sigfigs that can be obbtained from their use differ
in the precision of measurements
a calculated answer expressed in sigfigs
cannot be more precise than the least precise measurement from which it was calculated
How are the following quantities expressed metrically (these are the 7 vase units)?:
5. amount of substance
6. luminous intensity
7. electric current
1. meter (m)
2. kilogram (kg)
3. Kelvin (K)
4. second (s)
5. moles (mol)
6. candela (cd)
7. amphere (A)
energy and how it is measured
the capacity to do work or produce heat measured in Joules (J) or calories (cal)
an object's temperature determines
the direction of heat transfer
(heat moves from the hotter object to the colder object)