"one who submits to God's will", this is the name for a follower of the Islamic religion/someone who accepts Muhammad as the final prophet of god
lived 570-632 CE, he is believed by Muslims to be the final prophet from God, he married Khadija, was illiterate
Means "Recitation", this is the sacred text of Islam, and is believed to be god's word spoken through Muhammad, it is written in Arabic and is intended to be recited outloud
the holiest city of Islam, location of the Kaaba, destination for Hajj, located in modern-day Saudi Arabia, open only to Muslims. Muhammad was born here, then driven out because of his teachings (but he eventually returned and converted the city to Islam)
large cube-shaped structure in Mecca, contains Black Stone, believed by Muslims to be site where Abraham nearly sacrificed Ishmael. Muslims face it when they pray each day.
1st Pillar - Declaration of Faith: Allah is the ONLY god & Muhammad is his final prophet, illustrates devotion & faith, montheism
2nd Pillar - Daily Prayer (5 times per day) facing Mecca, illustrates self-discipline & obedience, structure
3rd Pillar - Almsgiving to the poor, illustrates caring & generosity
4th Pillar - Fasting during Ramadan, illustrates commitment, self control & devotion/faith
5th Pillar - Pilgrimmage to Mecca at least once in life, involves walking 7 times around Kaaba, illustrates commitment, devotion
Wife of Muhammad, older by 15 years, successful businesswoman, first convert to Islam
Dome of the Rock
site in Jerusalem where Muhammad is beleived to have ascended into heaven. It stands near the Western Wall.
Arabic for "god", believed by Muslims to be the ONLY god. Muslims also believe Muhammad spoke Allah's message
son of Ibrahim & Hagar, believed by Muslims to have almost been sacrificed by Ibrahim at the site where Kaaba now sits. Ancestor of the Muslim religion
The branch of Islam that believes religious leaders should be descended from Ali (Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law). Shiite Muslims live mostly in Iran and Iraq.
The branch of Islam that believes religious leaders should be chosen by other Muslims. This branch comprises 90% of the world's Muslims. Considered to be the orthodox of Islam
lived 1207-1273. Persian Sufi poet and mystic
"principles set down by an authority as incontrovertibly true" - Islam LACKED dogma which made it more attractive than Christianity to new converts...this facilitated the spread of Islam following Muhammad's death
small statues people prayed to before they accepted Allah as their one true god; people used to travel to Mecca to worship them at the Kaaba; Muhammad got rid of them when he returned to Mecca in 630
a scholar trained in Islamic law and culture
became the center of the Muslim world between the 7th-10th centuries; it was multi-ethnic, cosmopolitan, and a center for trade, arts, culture, science, and scholarship. One traveler called it the "navel of the earth"
public worship and ritual; the fact that Islam lacked it greatly facilitated its spread to new converts.
a prayer leader; her/his duty is to interpret Sharia
the holy language of Islam; the Quran is always written/recited in Arabic so many Muslims will learn this language in order to fully comprehend the holy text
A concept in Islam that means "to strive in pursuit of" or an "inner spiritual struggle". A Jihad could be any struggle that is difficult but brings you closer to god. Extremists/terrorists have interpreted it to mean a violent struggle and use it to justify violence agains innocent people.
codes of conduct/path to follow prescribing religious and non-religious duties; made Islam popular because they are very straightforward and easy to follow
A holy city for Muslims, it is located in Saudi Arabia. Muhammad fled from Mecca to Medina in 622 (a journey known as the Hijra) and converted it to Islam before returning to Mecca with an army in 630.
A gathering place for Muslims to pray