Science Chapter 2 - Weather Patterns

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air pressure

This is caused by the constant motion of air molecules. The force of air molecules pushing on an area - as well, air moves because _____ _____ varies from place to place.

decreases

Air pressure _______ as you move higher in the atmosphere.

higher

Air pressure and density are _____ at sea level because a taller column of air pushes down.

lower

Air pressure and density are _____ at a high altitude because a shorter column of air pushes down.

barometer

Any instrument that measures air pressure.

weather

The condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.

wind

Air that moves horizontally, or parallel to the ground -- caused by differences in air pressure -- this forms because air pressure varies from place to place.

rises

Warmer air _____ = low pressure.

sinks

Cooler air _____ = high pressure.

high

Wind moves from an area of _____ pressure toward an area of low pressure.

global winds

The earth rotates causing the winds to curve. What does this motion affect? _______ last for weeks -- and travel thousands of kilometers in steady patterns - or, large masses of moving air, that travel long distances in steady patterns over several weeks.

Coriolis

The influence of Earth's rotation on objects that move over the earth.

right

Global winds curve as the earth turns beneath them -- and, in the Northern Hemisphere, winds curve to the _____ in the direction of motion.

left

Winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the _____.

belts

Global winds curve and cannot flow directly from the poles to the equator; thus, there are global wind ______.

doldrums

Low-pressure zone near the equator -- warm air rises to the top of the troposphere, which is the atmosphere's lowest layer (Calm Region)

horse

The ______ latitudes are high-pressure zones located about 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south of the equator. Warm air traveling away from the equator cools and sinks in these regions and the weather tends to be clear and dry (Calm Region)

trade

The _____ winds blow from the east, moving from the horse latidtudes toward the equator and these strong and steady einds die out as they come near the equator.

westerlies

____ blow east and this wind belt blows from the west, moving from the horse latitudes toward the poles and bring storms across much of the USA.

easterlies

____ blow west and this wind belt blows from the east, moving from the polar regions toward the mid-latitudes with stormy weather often occurs when the cold air of this wind belt meets the warmer air of the westerlies.

jet streams

Usually flow in the upper troposphere from west to east for thousands of kilometers and moves in ______ ______ at speeds greater than 200 KM / 124 mi/hr -- quick moving winds.

monsoons

These are caused by the different heating and cooling rates of land and sea and flow longer distances and affect much larger areas - or, a wind that changes direction with the seasons.

evaporation

The process by which a liquid changes into a gas -- for water to do this, it needs extra energy.

condensation

Is the process by which a gas, such as water vapor changes into a liquid and occurs when moist air cools.

precipitation

Any type of liquid or solid water that falls to the Earth's surface is called this - and, this forms when water droplets combine and become heavy enough to fall.

humidity

The amount of water vapor or water in the air.

saturation

A condition in which the rates of evaporation and condensation are equal -- and, additional water that evaporates is balanced by water that condenses.

relative humidity

Air reaches saturation or saturated air is 100%. Compares the amount of water vapor in air with the maximumamount of water vapor that can be present at that temperature - air with this type of humidity at the 50% level has half the amount of water needed for saturation and if the amount of water vapor in air stays the same, then this type of humidity will decrease as the air heats up and increas as the air cools.

dew point

This decreases as air heats up and increases as air cools. This is the temperature at which air with a given amount of water vapor will reach saturation -- the higher the _____ _____ of air, the more water vapor the air contains.

clouds

This forms when air cools to its dew point -- _____ are made of condensed water vapor -- as warm air rises in the atmospher, it cools.

Cirrus

Curl of hair -- clouds that appear feathery or wispy -- cold air altitudes and made of ice crystals -- usually will see in fair weather; however, they can be a sign that a storm is coming.

Cumulus

Means "heap" or "pile" -- clouds that can grow to be very tall -- puffy white clouds with darker bases -- cotton balls floating in the sky -- usually during fair weather, but if these clouds grow real tall they can produce storm/showers for a short period of time.

Stratus

This type of clouds means "spread out" -- form in flat layers -- they form without strong wind movement -- form i layers when air cools over a large area without rising or when the air is gently lifted - steady, light precipitation (dark skies).

fog

This is a cloud that rests on the ground or a body of water with a smooth appearance like stratus clouds.

rain or drizzle

The most common form of precipitation - ice crystals melt as they fall.

freezing rain

A type of precipitation that covers surfaces with a coating of ice - rain freezes when it hits the ground and causes very slippery conditions.

sleet

Precipitation that are small pellets of ice.

hail

The largest type of frozen precipitation that forms when ice pellets move up and down in clouds growing larger as they gain layers of ice - very windy conditions.

snow

Forms from ice crystals that merge and grow in the clouds.

acid rain

Polluted rain.

altitude

Height above sea level

density

The amount of mass in a given volume.

radiation, conduction, convection

Three processes that move energy.

troposphere

Lowest layer of atmospher

convection

This occurs in the atmosphere, cool air sinks and warm air rises.

atmosphere

Gases, tiny particles, and water droplets are materials in the _____.

rain gauge

Rain is measured with this.

denser

Air pressure is _____ at the BOTTOM of the Canyon.

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