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poetry

A type of literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form (usually using lines and stanzas)

simile

A comparison of two things using "like, as, than," or "resembles."

metaphor

A direct comparison of two unlike things

extended metaphor

A metaphor that goes several lines or possibly the entire length of a work

symbolism

When a person, place, thing, or event that has meaning in itself also represents, or stands for, something else

universal symbol

A symbol that is recognized at different times in history and across cultures as having a main meaning

diction

How all of the words in a poem sound once they are placed against one another

dialect

words used to reflect a certain culture, time, or geographic region

denotation

literal definition of a word

connotation

the suggested emotional meaning of a word

imagery

language that appeals to the senses; most are visual

poet

author of the poem

speaker

the "narrator" of the poem; can be different than the poet

mood or tone

The speaker's attitude toward the subject, revealed by the words he or she chooses

hyperbole

Exaggeration often used for emphasis

litotes

Understatement - basically the opposite of hyperbole. Often it is ironic

Idiom

An expression where the literal meaning of the words is not the meaning of the expression. It means something other than what it actually says

personification

An animal given human-like qualities or an object given life-like qualities

allusion

Allusion comes from the verb "allude" which means "to refer to". A reference to something famous

types of allusion

Literary allusion, historical allusion, and biblical allusion

apostrophe

An absent person or inanimate object is directly spoken to as though it or he was present

synedoche

a part stands for the whole or vice versa

onomatopoeia

words that imitate the sound they arenaming or sounds that imitate another sound

anaphora

the same words or phrases are repeated throughtout the poem

alliteration

any sound repeated at the beggining of words

consonance

similar to alliteration EXCEPT the repeated consonance sounds can be anywhere in the words

assonance

when the vowel sounds inside words are repeated

Euphony

Occurs when there is a soft pleasing sound

rhythm

the beat created by the sounds of the words in a poem

inverted word order

the words of a poem are not in usual grammatical construction

meter

a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables; are arranged in a repeating pattern

scansion

the process of marking the metrical pattern of a poem

foot

unit of meter

iambic

unstressed, stressed

pentameter

5 feet on a line

free verse poetry

doesnt have repeating patterns, doesnt have to rhyme, sounds like a conversation to you, is more modern

blank verse poetry

written in lines of iambic pentameter but doesnt use end rhyme

rhyme

words sound alike because they share the same consonant sounds

exact rhyme

uses words with identical end sounds

end rhyme

a word at the end of one line rhymes with a word on another line

internal rhyme

a word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line

near rhyme

imperfect rhyme, close; the words share either the same vowel or constanant sound but not both

visual rhyme

when words look alike, rather than sound like they should rhyme

rhyme scheme

is a pattern of rhyme (usually end)

couplet

a 2 line stanza

triplet

a 3 line stanza

quatrain

a 4 line stanza

poetry form

the appearance of the words on the page

line

a group of words together on one part of the poem

stanza

a group of lines arranged together

enjambed line

when a line of poetry runs over into the nest line in a poem without punctuation

lyric

express an emotion or an idea or describes a scene

haiku

japanese poem written in 3 lines

sonnet

14 line poem with specific line scheme, written in 3 quatrains and ends with a couplet

narrative poem

a poem that tells a story

ballad

a type of narrative poem about love/adventure/relationships

concrete poem

words are arranged to create a picture that relates to the content of the poem

Cacophony

Has a harsh, grimming sound

dynamic

able to change, changes

static

stays the same

flat

plain, not complicated, not very many aspects

round

complex, many characteristics

direct characterization

comes out and tells reader directly what a character is like

indirect characterization

author drops hints of how/what character is like

methods of indirect characterization

have the character SPEAK WORDS that reveal the trait; have the character ACT in certain ways to reveal the trait; have the character reveal trait in way it DRESSES/LOOKS; OTHER CHARACTERS talk about character

action

refers to everything that goes on or happens in a story

antagonist

the person/thing fighting against the hero of the story; the villain or "negative force"

character

a person in a story

conflict

the "problem" in a story which triggers the action; man vs. man, man vs. society, man vs. himself, man vs. nature, man vs. fate (God)

dialogue

refers to the talking that goes on between characters in a story

mood

the feeling(s) a reader gets from a story

moral

the lesson an author is trying to teach in a story

narrator

the person or character who is telling the story

plot

the action of the story

plot line

shows the action or events in a story; exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution

exposition

part of story (usually beginning) which explains the background and setting of the story; characters are introduced

rising action

leads up to climax

climax

highest point (turning point) in the action of the story

falling action

the action or dialogue necessary to lead the story to a resolution or ending

resolution

the end of a story where all the problems are solved

irony

a type of humor; 3 types of it

verbal irony

sarcasm

dramatic irony

audience/reader knows something characters don't know

situational irony

something unexpected happens that makes a situation humorous

flashback

going into one's memory of the past

foreshadowing

hints that show what happens before it does

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