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Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavities of certain bones.

TRUE

Compact bone is replaced more often than spongy bone.

FALSE

Bones are classified by whether they are weight bearing or protective in function.

FALSE

The periosteum is a tissue that serves only to protect the bone because it is not supplied with nerves or blood vessels.

FALSE

Short, irregular, and flat bones have large marrow cavities in order to keep the weight of the bones light.

FALSE

In newborn infants, the medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone contain yellow bone marrow.

FALSE

The structural unit of compact bone (osteon) resembles the growth rings of a tree trunk.

TRUE

The term osteoid refers to the organic part of the matrix of compact bones.

TRUE

Sixty-five percent of the mass of bone is a compound called hydroxyapatite.

TRUE

All bones formed by intramembranous ossification are irregular bones.

FALSE

An osteon contains osteocytes, lamellae, and a central canal, and is found in compact bone only.

TRUE

The trabeculae of spongy bone are oriented toward lines of stress.

TRUE

Bone tissue in the skeleton of a human fetus is completely formed at six months' gestation.

FALSE

Each consecutive bone lamella has collagen fibers that wrap in alternating directions.

TRUE

Cartilage has a flexible matrix that can accommodate mitosis of chondrocytes.

TRUE

Closure of the epiphyseal plate stops all bone growth.

FALSE

The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?
A) spongy bone
B) irregular bone
C) compact bone
D) trabecular bone

C) compact bone

Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________.
A) fat
B) blood-forming cells
C) elastic tissue
D) Sharpey's fibers

A) fat

The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ________.
A) osteocyte
B) osteoblast
C) osteoclast
D) chondrocyte

B) osteoblast

What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?
A) elastic connective tissue
B) dense fibrous connective tissue
C) fibrocartilage
D) hyaline cartilage

D) hyaline cartilage

What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause?
A) inadequate calcification of bone
B) decreased osteoclast activity
C) decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage
D) increased osteoclast activity

C) decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage

A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________.
A) epiphysis
B) metaphysis
C) diaphysis
D) articular cartilage

C) diaphysis

The term diploë refers to the ________.
A) double-layered nature of the connective tissue covering the bone
B) fact that most bones are formed of two types of bone tissue
C) internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
D) two types of marrow found within most bones

C) internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones

Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates a projection that helps to form joints?
A) meatus
B) ramus
C) foramen
D) fossa
E) epicondyle

B) ramus

Factors in preventing (or delaying) osteoporosis include ________.
A) drinking fluoridated water
B) decreasing weight-bearing exercise
C) increasing dietary vitamin C
D) decreasing exposure to the sun

A) drinking fluoridated water

Ossification of the ends of long bones ________.
A) is a characteristic of intramembranous bone formation
B) involves medullary cavity formation
C) is produced by secondary ossification centers
D) takes twice as long as diaphysis

C) is produced by secondary ossification centers

Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood, as well as shaping the articular surfaces?
A) lacunae
B) Haversian system
C) epiphyseal plate
D) epiphyseal line

C) epiphyseal plate

The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is ________.
A) hyaline
B) elastic
C) fibrocartilage
D) epiphyseal

A) hyaline

Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?
A) support
B) storage of minerals
C) production of blood cells (hematopoiesis)
D) communication

D) communication

What is the structural unit of compact bone?
A) osseous matrix
B) spongy bone
C) lamellar bone
D) the osteon

D) the osteon

Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ________.
A) cartilage and compact bone
B) marrow and osteons
C) osteoblasts and osteoclasts
D) chondrocytes and osteocytes

C) osteoblasts and osteoclasts

The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________.
A) Volkmann's canals
B) a bony matrix with hyaline cartilage
C) perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
D) the struts of bone known as spicules

C) perforating (Sharpey's) fibers

The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of ________.
A) cartilage and interstitial lamellae
B) osteoclasts and osteoblasts
C) yellow marrow and spicules
D) blood vessels and nerve fibers

D) blood vessels and nerve fibers

What are the small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live called?
A) lacunae
B) Volkmann's canals
C) Haversian canals
D) trabeculae

A) lacunae

For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?
A) A bone collar forms around the cartilage model.
B) An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.
C) The cartilage matrix begins to deteriorate.
D) A medullary cavity forms.

B) An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.

The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________.
A) closing of the epiphyseal plate
B) long bones reaching adult length and width
C) appositional growth
D) concentric growth

C) appositional growth

21) Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?
A) osteoclast
B) osteocyte
C) osteoblast
D) stem cell

A) osteoclast

Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?
A) calcitonin
B) thyroxine
C) parathyroid hormone
D) estrogen

C) parathyroid hormone

The universal loss of mass seen in the skeleton, which begins about the age of 40, ________.
A) is slower in females than in males
B) is absolutely uniform throughout the skeleton
C) reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization
D) is greater in African Americans than in Northern Europeans

C) reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization

Wolff's law is concerned with ________.
A) vertical growth of bones being dependent on age
B) the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it
C) the function of bone being dependent on shape
D) the diameter of the bone being dependent on the ratio of osteoblasts to osteoclasts

B) the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it

Cranial bones develop ________.
A) from cartilage models
B) within fibrous membranes
C) from a tendon
D) within osseous membranes

B) within fibrous membranes

Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels?
A) pineal gland
B) thyroid
C) parathyroid
D) spleen

B) thyroid

Osteomyelitis is ________.
A) partially due to insufficient dietary calcium
B) literally known as "soft bones"
C) due to pus-forming bacteria
D) caused by altered vitamin D metabolism

C) due to pus-forming bacteria

Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. What is appositional growth?
A) growth at the epiphyseal plate
B) the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage
C) along the edges only
D) the lengthening of hyaline cartilage

B) the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage

Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth?
A) Growth occurs in the lining of the long bones.
B) Fibroblasts give rise to chondrocytes that differentiate and form cartilage.
C) Unspecialized cells from mesenchyme develop into chondrocytes, which divide and form cartilage.
D) Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.

D) Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.

In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ________.
A) by pulling the diaphysis toward the epiphysis
B) by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis
C) from the edges inward
D) in a circular fashion

B) by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis

Spongy bones are made up of a framework called ________.
A) osteons
B) lamellar bone
C) trabeculae
D) osseous lamellae

C) trabeculae

Osteogenesis is the process of ________.
A) making a cartilage model of the fetal bone
B) bone destruction to liberate calcium
C) bone formation
D) making collagen fibers for calcified cartilage

C) bone formation

Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through ________.
A) interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates
B) the secretion of bone matrix into the medullary cavity
C) differentiation of osteoclasts
D) calcification of the matrix

A) interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates

Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood?
A) thyroid hormone
B) somatomedins
C) growth hormone
D) prolactin

C) growth hormone

In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might be the cause?
A) overproduction of thyroid hormone
B) elevated levels of sex hormones
C) too much vitamin D in the diet
D) osteoblast activity exceeds osteoclast activity

B) elevated levels of sex hormones

Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ________.
A) calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
B) potassium, phosphate, and vitamin D
C) sodium, calcium, and vitamin E
D) vitamin D, phosphate, and chloride

A) calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D

Ostealgia is ________.
A) a defect called clubfoot
B) a disease of the bone
C) pain in a bone
D) fractured bone

C) pain in a bone

Blood cell formation is called ________.

hematopoiesis

A bone embedded in a tendon is called a(n) ________ bone.

sesamoid

A central (Haversian) canal may contain arteries, veins, capillaries, lymph vessels, and ________ fibers.

nerve

A long bone forms by a process known as ________ ossification.

endochondral

________ growth is growth in the diameter of long bones.

Appositional

________ are multinucleated cells that destroy bone.

Osteoclasts

________ is a disease of the bone in which bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit, leaving the person with thin and often very fragile bones.

Osteoporosis

A round or oval hole through a bone that contains blood vessels and/or nerves is called a(n) ________.

foramen

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