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Carbohydrates

are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom

Monosaccharide

a monomer of a carbohydrate-simple sugar-contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in a ratio of 1-2-1

Disaccharide

A double sugar formed when two monosaccharides combine in a condensation reaction

Polysaccharides

is a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides

Proteins

are organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

Amino acids

the linkage of monomers

Peptide Bond

when two amino acids form a convalent bond

Polypetides

long chains of amino acids

Enzymes

RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts

Substrate

a reactant being catalyzed

Active Site

a folded enzyme; shape allows the substrate to fit into the active site

Lipids

are large non-polar molecules (Don't dissolve in water)

Fatty acids

are unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids

Phospholipids

have two, rather than three fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol

Wax

is a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain

Steroid

molecules composed of four fused Carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them

Nucleic Acids

are very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell

DNA

contains information that determines the characteristics of an organism and directs its cell activities

RNA

stores and transfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins

Nucleotide

is made up of three main componets: a phosphate group, a five carbon sugar, and a ring-shaped nitrogenous base

organic compounds

are made up primarily of carbon atoms

functional groups

clusters of atoms

monomers

carbon compounds that are built from smaller, simpler, molecules

condensation reaction

a chemical reaction where monomers link to form polymers

hydrolysis reaction

a process in which complex molecules such as polymers, are broken down.

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

a type of compound that stores a large amount of energy in their overall structure

What are the four organic compounds?

lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and proteins

starch

thousands of glucose molecules linked together

glucose and glucose bonded together

a dissacharide, and maltose

What is glucose and frutose bonded together?

table sugar (glucose)

galactose and galactose bonded together

lactose (milk, dairy products)

animal starch

glycogen

plant starch

cellulose

What do you add to break down glucose?

water (hydrolysis reaction)

breaks down starch to get energy

the mitochondria

What are the two purposes of a lipid?

insulation, and reserving energy

functional group in a lipid

aldehyde

isomer

the same molecular formula but a different structural formula (ex. gluctose, frutose)

saturated fat

where all carbon atoms are linked through a single bond in a lipid

unsaturated fat

where some carbon atoms are linked through double bonds

fats

triglycerides

phospholipids make up

the cell membrane

phospholipids consist of

A hydrophobic end and a hydrophyllic end

examples of steroids

tesostrone, estrogen, cholestrol

What do proteins do?

build and repair tissues

What are the physical characteristics of a protein?

they are very large and consist of C, H, N, O, and sometimes S and sometimes P

How do amino acids bond?

through a condensation reaction

another name for a protein

a polypeptide

fibers

long stretched out chains of amino acids

globular protein

linked chain, then it folds onto itself

What are some characteristics of enzymes?

very large proteins, can be used over and over again, lowers activation energy, enzymes are specific,

coenzyme

helps enzyme

inhibitors

can block substrates or active site

What differs between RNA and DNA?

DNA consists of deoxyribose and has 2 strands. RNA consists of ribose

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