What were the wealthy women who cared for the suck during the early Christian times known as?
What did nursing roots primarily come from?
Strict discipline and obedience (thanks to the church)
What led to the development of hospitals built by religious orders?
The Bubonic Plague (Black death)
The Crusades led to the development of what?
Knights Hospitalers (fought battles & took care of sick and injured)
What even changed the overall profile of nursing?
What aspects of nursing did the Protestant Reformation change?
1. A collapse of religious nursing orders
2. Disappearance of men from nursing
3. Nursing now seen as dirty work & undesirable
What effect did the Industrial Revolution have on nursing?
No longer did everyone grow their own food, went to factories. Poor working conditions, overcrowding, and disease.
Who revived the deaconess movement & opened a small hospital for training programs?
Who is known as the authority on health care?
Florence was the first to prove that............
more people die of disease than injuries while at war
Florence was known for her actions during which war?
Crimean War (decreased mortality rate)
What was the Crimean War significant for?
publicizing what war was really like to a shocked British public
Who is one of the overlooked heroines of the Crimean War?
What did Mary Seacole do during Crimean war?
purchased own supplies and recruited group of nurses to set up her own hospital to treat British casualties
Common people sent in their spare change to what fund?
Nightingale Endowment Fund
What was the Nightingale Endowment Fund used for?
the first Nightingale Training School (St. Thomas hospital in London)
Nightingale believed passionately about what?
nurses be trained and have continuing education, and not rely on "female caring instincts"
Who was credited for publicizing the need for nurses during the American Civil War?
Louisa May Alcott & Walt Whitman
What schoolteacher organized military hospitals and a Corps of nurses?
Dorothea Lynde Dix
What midwife is responsible for the underground railroad?
Who founded the American Red Cross?
Who was the first American "trained nurse"?
Who was the first African American "trained nurse"?
Who was the first public health nurse and the founder of occupational health nursing?
Who was the first nursing professional organization president?
Isabel Hampton Robb
What was the result of the American Civil War, relating to nursing?
1. Need for trained nurses
2. New schools based on Nightingale method
3. Exploitation of students
When did the army start its own school of nursing?
during World War I
How did the Great Depression effect nursing?
1. No more private duty nurses due to the lack of funds
2. Closure of many hospital training programs
3. Movement of trained nurses back into hospitals & hospitals now main site of working nurses
During the Great Depression what federal funds were used to support hospitals and employ nurses?
Roosevelt's "New Deal"
What were the federal funds called that payed for nurse training for both military and civilian sectors, and when was this first seen?
Cadet Nurse Corps; during World War II
What emerged during World War II?
1. School shortened to 2 years instead of 3 to produce more nurses faster.
2. Nurse's Aides to help meet shortage
Mobile Field Hospitals (MASH) were first seen when?
During the Korean War
The initial commissioning of male nurses by the Army and Navy happened when?
during the Vietnam Conflict
What 3 factors had an overall historical influence on nursing that still persists in some forms today?
1. The status of women ("duty" with no economic reward necessary)
2. Religious roots (a calling & not a career)
3. Military influence (obedience to authority)
Any activity engaged in to earn a living
the individual is uniquely suited- something you do because you are called to do it, not worried about the pay.
What 9 characteristics describe a profession?
rigorous formal education, intellectual not physical, practical, services vital to society, altruistic (public service over financial gain), high degree of autonomy, responsibility, code of ethics, and specialized body of knowledge
Why is nursing often not considered to be a profession?
Sometimes due to not requiring BSN, and some argue that nurses take doctors orders and simply carry them out
What are written documents evidencing competence?
Attests completion of a course of study at a formal educational institution? (but is not a passport into a certain job)
A legal credential issued by the GOVERNMENT that permits you to do something
a listing of information with the government
Which type of licensure states that to be a nurse you had to pass a test, but if you did not go to school or pass a test, you could still practice nursing, just simply could not call yourself an RN?
Which type of licensure states you have to attend approved school and pass exam before you can even practice nursing?
Licensure today requires what?
1. Graduation from approved program
2. payment of fee with periodic renewal
3. passing standardize exam (NCLEX)
4. evidence of continued competence (SOME states)
Who is responsible for starting registry and the first attempt to control types of schooling individual nurses must have?
What is the purpose of licensure?
The protection of the public.....NOT protection of your status!
What is involved in the Nurse Practice Act?
Establish Board, Defines nursing, gives power to grant licenses, gives power to approve nursing programs, gives power to deny or revoke licenses and to discipline nurses
Which type of Licensure involves letting every work place decide who is ready to do what, or who is ready to get a license?
Which type of Licensure allows nurses to practice in multiple states without obtaining a new license for each state?
Multi-State Recognition Licensure (Nurse Licensure Compact)
What is a Certification?
shows expertise in certain area rather than minimal competency, voluntary, issued by American Nurses Credentialing Center instead of the government, requires an exam but doesn't necessarily give a higher status or reward
What is Accreditation?
"approval" of hospitals, healthcare organizations, education institutions, or educational programs
Who accredits hospitals?
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO)
Who accredits schools of nursing?
National League for Nursing (NLN)
Who accredits Continuing Education (CE) providers?
State Boards of Nursing
influences legislation and defines social policy, ethics and standards. Has local, state, and national chapters. considered the "voice of organized nursing"
American Nurses Association (ANA)
What is the main purpose of the National League for Nursing (NLN)?
advancing nursing education (such as accreditation of schools).
Non-nurses can join which type of organization?
NLN (which also supports all levels of nursing education)
Which organization can be joined by only deans and directors of baccalaureate schools of nursing?
American Association of Colleges of Nursing
Who is preparing to compete with NLN to accredit BSN programs?
American Association of Colleges of Nursing
What is the nursing's honor society?
Sigma Theta Tau International (STTI)
Specialty organizations tend to be organized around what?
Clinical specialty, ethnicity, religious affiliation, etc..
Who establishes nursing standards?
the government (especially state boards of nursing)
Regardless of their program type, nursing graduates:
take same exam, hired at same salary, do same job
Diploma programs are bases on what?
Nightingale Model & influenced by war experiences
What was the first US diploma program?
New England Hospital
What was life like in early diploma programs?
Put on "probationary period" where they did everyday chores while instructors watched and looked for attitude & moral problems. Students could be dismissed at any time during this period. A training not an education. Physicians did teachings. Exploited as cheap labor. Resulted in lack of jobs in hospitals for grads, so they worked in the community.
What was the effect of WW I?
management structure of school different from that of hospital to eliminate conflict of interest
What was the Brown Report?
Lucille Brown- concerned that not enough women interested in nursing, and that nursing schools were not giving enough education. Report stating that apprenticeship training be abandoned and replaced with planned educational systems.
What did the Brown Report influence?
NLN Accreditation Standards: school must show that students are not used as labor force and that every activity has a defined educational purpose
What are diploma programs like today?
Very few in number (none in FL), producing least amount of graduates. often loosely affiliated with institutions of higher learning, but credits sometimes will not transfer. Most are 27-36 calendar months in length.
What produces the majority of nurses?
Associate Degree Programs
What was the result of the Brown Report?
schools went from being profitable to becoming major economic liabilities, and diploma programs began to fade
What was the effect of WW II on nursing?
A demand for technically capable workers in new industries, GI bill, and a nursing shortage influenced by the baby boom.
The rise of the community college system was a result of what?
education money from GI bill, demand for capable workers, and social pressure.
What did Mildred Montag do?
predicted battles over title. Researched nursing shortage and set up demonstration programs in community colleges causing AD programs to grow rapidly.
What are some impacts/concerns with associated with AD programs?
intended to prepare grads for hospital based practice, increases diversity (gender,race,culture), hard to fit into 2 years, selective admissions.
What is the major course difference between an AD & BSN?
in addition to diploma/AD content, BSN includes coursework in health promotion/containment, disease prevention, leadership, introduction to research, and community/public health.
Where was the first "real" BSN program?
Why was the growth of BSN programs slow?
Many thought nursing was technical and not worthy of being in University. Many thought women didn't need liberal education, and many physicians opposed it.
When did BSN programs finally "take off"?
After WW II
What are some of the issues and challenges regarding BSN programs?
expensive (low student: faculty ratio in clinical setting), difficulty finding faculty, and scarcity of clinical sites
Where were the early short training courses for Practical Nursing (LPN) started and what were they like?
Young Womens Christian Association (100 yrs ago); permissive licensure until the 50s & 60s.
What is the difference in curriculum for LPN programs?
focuses on the "how" instead of the "why"
LPNs must work under direct supervision of RN or MD except when working where?
Nursing home (due to lower complexity of tasks)
Whose major activities include hygiene, vital sings, assistance with eating, and assisting with mobility?
Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA)
Which act required completion of approved training course for CNAs?
Omnibus Budget reconciliation Act (OBRA)
What is involved in the ANA position paper?
All nursing education should take place in institutions of higher learning (no more diploma schools), BSN minimum preparation for "professional nursing", AD minimum preparation for "technical nursing". NLN does not support this paper. Resulted in only 1 state (ND) implementing, but changed in 2004.
A specialist degree, such as clinical specialists
Graduate Nursing; Master's Degree Programs
Mostly generalist programs with emphasis on research competency and theory
Doctoral education; DNP (doctors of nursing practice) only 3 programs exist
Who is responsible for regulating nursing?