Physiologic Effects of Inhalant Anesthetics

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Do anesthetics have a low margin of safety?

yes

Which gas anesthetic doesn't cause a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure?

nitrous oxide

How does Halothane cause the blood pressure to drop in patients?

by decreasing CO

Which two anesthetics cause vasodilation? (mark all that apply)
a. isoflurane
b. desflurane
c. halothane

a, b

Why does the heart rate increase in patients given isoflurane and desflurane?

baroreceptor reflex is stimulated as the vessels dilate and stimulate the heart rate to increase

Do isoflurane and desflurane cause decreased cardiac output?

no

All inhalants decrease contractility at concentrations > _____ MAC.

2

Why might contractility increase with nitrous oxidine?

it stimulates the SNS

Halothane sensitizes the myocardium to __________-induced arrhythmias.

catecholamine

How do anesthetic agents decrease sensitivity to PaCO2?

depress the respiratory control center in the medulla

Atalectasis is common when breathing 100%O2. Why is this?

Normally the nitrogen in the air is not absorbed into the blood and this gas keeps the alveoli open. When breathing 100% O2, all the oxygen may dissolve into the blood and leave no gas in the alveoli to maintain its patency.

Why is Desflurane prevented from mask induction?

way more airway irritation due to its pungency

What does inhalant anesthetics do to renal blood flow, glomerular filtration and urine output?

dose-dependent decrease

Which anesthetic is the least effective at maintaining oxygen delivery to the liver?
a. isoflurane
b. sevoflurane
c. halothane

c

Which anesthetic is very well tolerated for mask induction?
a. isoflurane
b. sevoflurane
c. halothane

b

Which anesthetic can produce compound A, a renal toxic substance, that may accumulate in the breathing circuit?
a. isoflurane
b. sevoflurane
c. halothane

b

Why is desflurane unacceptable for mask induction?

causes intense airway irritation, cough, laryngospasms, and excitation

T/F: Nitrous Oxide speed the induction of higher soluble agents.

true

Why is Nitrous oxide contraindicated in cases of pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, GDV, etc?

because it diffuses into air-filled cavities and can make these situations worse

Nitrous Oxide may cause diffusion _______ due to rapid elimination through alveoli.

hypoxemia

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