SGU Embryology Part I -General Embryo

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74 terms · pages 1-32 of Part I General Embryo Gupta's class Fall 2011

Somatopleure consists of

Somatic Mesoderm + Ectoderm

Splanchnopleure consists of

Splanchnic Mesoderm + Endoderm

Paraxial Mesoderm later forms

Somites

Sclerotome forms

Vertebral Column

Myotome forms

Muscles

Dermatome forms

Connective Tissues

Nucleus Propulsus develops from

Notochord

Annulus Fibrosus develops from

Mesenchyme of Sclerotome

Extraembryonic Somatopleure consitutes the

Amnion and chorion

Extraembryonic Splanchnopleure constitutes the

Yolk Sac and Allantois

Yolk Sac has what type of vessles

Vitelline Vessels

Allantois has what type of vessels

Umbilical Vessels

Superficial Implantation is

The embryonic sac lies in the lumen

Superficial implantation occurs in which animals?

Ruminants Equine Porcine

Eccentric Implantation is

the embryonic sac lies in a fold or pocket

Eccentric implantation occurs in what animals?

Rat and Squirrel

Interstitial Implantation is

The embryonic sac penetrates and is embedded in the uterine wall

Interstitial Implantation occurs is which animals?

Guinea Pig Carnivores and Man

Histotrophic Nutrition is

Nutrition from secretion of Uterine Gland

Hemotrophic Nutrition is

Nutrition from Maternal Circulation

Choriovitelline Placetation is

Yolk Sac combines with the Chorion to form placenta --Horse and dog 1st 1/4 gestation

Chorioallantoic Placetation

Allantois combines with Chorion to from placenta ruminant pig carnivore equine

Diffuse placenta is found in what animal?

Mare and Sow

Cotyledonary placenta is found in what animal?

Ruminants

Zonary plaenta is found in what animals?

Carnivores

Discoidal placenta isfound in which animal?

Primates Rodents and Bats

Villous Branching is

Simple branching of chorionic villi--sow mare and ruminants

Labyrinthine Branching is

Complicated branching of chorionic villi --carnivores and primates

Deciduate loss is

Extensive loss of maternal tissues at time of parturtiton carnivores and primates -- always paired with Labyrinthine

Non-Decdiuate loss is

Little loss of maternal tissue at time of parturition sow mare and ruminants -- always paired with
Villous

What is the route of Maternal to Fetal circulation?

Uterine A >Umbilical V >Umbilical A >
Uterine V

Epitheliochorial

All 6 layers present
Chorionic epi >Uterine epi
Sow and Mare

Syndesmochorial

5 layers present
Chorionic epi > Uterine CT
Ruminants

Endotheiliochorial

4 Layers present
Chorionic epi >Endothelium of Uterine vessels Carnivores

Hemochorial

3 layers present
Chorionic epi > Uterine blood
Primates

Classify the Sow and Mare's Placenta

Diffuse Villous Non-Deciduate, Epitheliochorial

Classify the Ruminant's placenta

Cotyledonary, Villous, Non-Deciduate, Syndesomchorial

Classify the Dog / Cat placenta

Zonary, Labyrinthine, Deciduate, Endotheliochorial

Classify the Primate's placenta

Discoidal, Labyrinthine, Deciduate, Hemochorial

Define Pre-embryonic period

Up to implantation

Define Embryonic period

Implantation to origin of organs and formtion of basic body form

Define Fetal period

Growth and maturation of the organ system

What animals are induced ovulators?

Cat and rabbit

What is polytocus?

More than one oocyte is released -- Dog cat sow ruminants

What is monotocus?

Only one oocyte is released

How long are ova/ sperm viable?

Sperm -Usually 1-2 days, up to 6-7 days in horse and dog, 32 days in fowl, 70 in turkey. Ova are usually viable for 24 hours.

What is the site of fertilization?

Infundibulum in dogs, Ampulla in other species

What is capacitation?

Removal of glycoprotein coat

What is the acrosomal reaction?

Release of enzymes to facilitate penetration of the oocyte

What is the zona reaction?

Chemical changes in the zona pellucida that pervent polyspermy

Describe Monozygous Twinning

One oocyte is released, divides att he blastocyst stage into two gentically identical masses. Always same sex, identical twins.

Describe Dizygous Twinning

Two seperate ova are fertilized, fraternal twins

What is a freemartin?

In Dizygous twinning a common circulation of the embryos, the female is born infertile b/c of the influence of testosterone produced by male embryo.

What is Polyspermy?

More than one sperm penetrates the female germ cell - common in pig and birds

What is Superfecundation?

2 different daddies --cats and dogs

What is Superfetation?

Second younger fetus -- pigs

It can still be termed a Morula if the ___________ is intact

Zona pellucida

What is the trophoblast used for?

Nutrition

Gastrulation is

The embryonic disc differentiates in to 3 germ layers

What are the 3 Germ Layers?

Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm

What is Delamination?

Detachment of the cells from the inner cell mass

What is the Gestation of the Mare?

335-345 days ~ 11 mo

What is the Gestation of the Cow?

279-282 days ~ 9 mo

What is the Gestation of the Ewe?

148-150 days ~ 5 mo

What is the Gestation of the Sow?

114-120 days remember 3 mo 3 weeks 3 days

What is the Gestation of the Dog and Cat?

Dog 60-65 days
Cat 60 days

What is holoblastic cleavage?

Complete division of the zygote- mammals

What is meroblastic cleaagve?

Partial division of the zygote, yolk prevents complete division -- birds

How is embryonic age measured?

Early - # of somites, later Crown rump length

When is implantation for the Sow and Cat?

13-14 days

When is implantation for Dog?

17-18 days

When is implantation for Ewe?

15-20 days

When is implantation for Cow?

25-30 days

When is implantation for the Mare?

35-40 days

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