Characteristics of the early middle ages
decentralized government, invasions, isolation, bad living conditions, limited trade, bad farming
characteristics of the high middle ages
rise of a monarch, strong central government, rise of nation states, better farming/ crops, decline of feudalism, power of the church
meaning cross, holy wars, there were nine,
what land was the crusades faught over?
what 3 faiths had jerusalem as a holy city?
christians, muslims, jews
proclaimed by pope urban II. knights had a chance to fight/ use skills. peasants had freedom and release from feudal bonds. promised salvation in heaven for those who gave their life. adventure and excitement. 30,000+men
Pope Urban II
calls on the first crusade. good speaker. gives a speech to ask for fighters. shouts Deus Vult.
god wills it/ will of god
crusade of kings
the childrens crusade
1,000 peasant children went to jerusalem because they thought god would give them the land because they were poor and faithful
results for the crusade
didn't get the holy land, increase the power of the kings by the decline of feudalism, cities became ports for trade, improved tech, ships, maps, military, weapons
rise of the church in the high middle ages
source of security (comfort), importance of religious rituals (sacraments), thousands take pillgrimages
church vs state
pope gregory VII vs Henry IV. papal decree against lay investiture. gregory excommunicated henry. so henry had to beg for forgiveness
growth of the papal monarchy
pope urban II (first crusade). pope innocent IIIs throcracy (government where god [pope] is the ruler). excommunication. interdictions. interventions.
the excommunication of a religion, nation, or group of people
pope interfers with the act of the monarchs
decline of the catholic church
pope boniface VIII va Philip IV. Boniface issues Unam Sanctum. after the death of pope clemit I; 2 popes were elected starting the great schism (40 years)
abuses of the church
simony. concubinage. nepotism. indulgences. lavish lifestyles
buying and selling of church offices
men and women living together without legal marriage
giving positions to family/ friends. (favoritism)
buying the forgivness of sins, buying a way into heaven, slip of paper
english priest, calls for reforms, book: Piers Plowman- contrasting the poor to the church officials
english scholar, died of natural cause, translated bible from latin to english, believed the church can do without rituals, dont need organized church for salvation, dont need priests, his followers: lollards were radical.
teacher at the university of Prague. led the slavs of Bohemia. Followers known as Hussites. (attacks against the church). Put to death (burned). became a martyr (hero). compromise of 1436
compromise of 1436
gave Hussites certain religious rights for allegience to the church
Council of pisa
to get rid of the popes. did the opposite and ended in an election of another pope (3)
Council of Constance
called by Sigismund (holy roman emperor). where john Hus was burned for herecy. resignation of all 3 popes with Martin V as new pope. end of the great schism.
Decline of the Roman Empire
unstable/ decentralized government, feudal states ruled by noble/ lord, 1100s, rise of the middle class, towns and cities, increase of trade
development of medieval england
germanic tribes, king alfred the great unites the anglo-saxons kingdoms.
king alfred the great
revival of learning (charlemagne), commisioned the publication of= a history of England (a living doc.)
william of normandy
"the confessor" battle of Hastings, gave noman vassals tracts of land and they remained loyal (successful). created the great council (body of parliment [limited monarchy] . used sheriffs to collect taxes
created the exchequer, the department of royal finances, set system of royal courts.
set system of common law, grand jury, limited government by the magna carta.
limitations on the king, kings could not collect taxes without the permission of the great council. right of triall by jury
strong central government, strengthening the monarchy, Louis VI, Philip II. Louis IX,
increase the power, increase the role of townspeople and clergy, gave power to the people.
powerful. strengthens monarchy
weakens feudal courts, creates royal courts, only kings can make coins
philip the fair. attacked church. oposes boniface VIII.sets up estates-general: assembly of nobles, clergy, townspeople, national taxes, never becomes powerful
Holy roman empire
kings weak-battle with the pope. weakness of german kings (concordat of worms-kings could nominate officials but pope has final say) numerous civil wars
Effects of the crusades
economic expansion, improvements of farming, three field system, increase of trade, east meets west.
rise of banks
based on a money economy, moneychangers usually jews or italians (determined the currencies.
business men, restrict outside people, enforced prices
artists, skilled craftsmen, regulated work of artists, strict rules for members, keeps high standards
organization of guilds
master. apprentice. journeyman. masterpiece.
owns own shop/tools, hired less skilled artists
artistain served period of time, trainned at certain skill, NOT paid
WAS paid, out on their own, can stay in this stages as long as they want
journeyman must present special project, group of masters judge.
benefits of guild
bills paid, takes care of family, social and religious events
greek- any people whose languange we cannot understand, foreign