President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes
The principle of not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking the country to the brink of war. Policy of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.
a foreign policy strategy advocated by George Kennan that called for the United States to isolate the Soviet Union, "contain" its advances, and resist its enroachments by peaceful means if possible, but by force if neccesary.
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
Liberalization of the Soviet Union initiated by Khrushchev in 1956.
Cold war competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to build up their respective armed forces and weapons
The blockade was a Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to the Berlin Airlift.
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
The economic association organized by the communist states
The leader of West Germany. The leader of the CDU and founding leader of the Federal Republic. Because of him wages doubled and GDP grew rapidly. Workers were imported.
Southeast Treaty Organization: Includes USA, UK, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand
1955 - A treaty supported by the West that united the defenses of Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan, and Iran, to counter the threat of the expansion of the Soviet Union.
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
Long range missiles that could reach other continents without having to be delivered by airplanes, ships, or other modes of transportation.
He was a pro-American dictator of Cuba before Castro. His overthrow led to Castro and communists taking over Cuba, who was now friendly to the Soviets.
led the revolution of Cuba and took control of Cuba in 1959; resented past dictators; made Cuba communist
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
in 1961, an attempt by Cuban exiles in southern Cuba to overthrow the Cuban socialist government of Fidel Castro; the effort was funded by the U.S. and was famously disastrous
a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies
thinning of Earth's ozone layer caused by CFC's leaking into the air and reacting chemically with the ozone, breaking the ozone molocules apart
Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
a United Nations agency created by a multinational treaty to promote trade by the reduction of tariffs and import quotas
DDT, PCB, PBB
toxin used to kill bugs, but had larger effects on large birds or pray through biomagnification, never breaks down, never goes away (nastier than DDT) ; Electrically Neutral (neuron) put into transmitters, doesn't have a charge (found in fish), Poly brominated biphenyl
-Same structure as DDT and PCB
-Fire and flame retardent
-Used in baby clothes, sheets and blankets
-"Fire Master" was accidently switched with "FeedMaster" for cattle who lost weight and the toxin showed up in hamburger meat
a United Nations agency created to assist developing nations by loans guaranteed by member governments
Communist Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong.
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
Belief that immigrants to the U.S. maintain their own cultural identity and thus the U.S. is a type of society in which diverse ethnic, racial, national groups go-exist while maintaining their own cultural heritage.
Term applied to a group of developing countries who professed nonalignment during the Cold War.
United Nations Security Council
The most powerful organization of the United Nations; its job is to maintain security and peace among nations of the world.
Molecule of heredity. Chromosomes are made up of coiled up DNA.
nuclear power plant in Russia that had an explosion in 1986 & released radioactive materials into the air
the channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort
An alliance between the English, Dutch, Austrians, and Prussians against the expansionist wars of Louis XIV.
"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
Arsenal of Democracy
idea are economic production of military equipment will help to save democracy
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Allied commander in WW2 in Europe; helped plan the D-Day invasion at Normandy; 34th President
capital of Japan
Prime Minister of Japan during WWII
Decisive battle in German invasion of Russia, the Germans were surrounded and systemically destroyed
United States admiral of the Pacific fleet during World War II who used aircraft carriers to destroy the Japanese navy (1885-1966)
Hitler's plan for organizing Europe into a single political and economic system ruled by Germany
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
Take over all of the natural resource hubs in asia and create a giant imperial power on the pacific rim
Communist dictator of Yugoslavia, worked to keep the former Yugoslavia free from Russian domination.
It refers to the mass-attack tactics against convoys used by German U-boats of the Kriegsmarine during the Battle of the Atlantic and submarines of the United States Navy against Japanese shipping in the Pacific Ocean in World War II.
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Battle of Britain
the prolonged bombardment of British cities by the German Luftwaffe during World War II and the aerial combat that accompanied it
British Prime Minister who opposed the policy of appeasement and led Great Britain through World War II
Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).
Military takeover of Manchuria by the Japanese. Was not supported by the civilian government, which fell apart in response. Condemned by the newly formed League of Nations,
name of the territory in which Hitler sent troops into in defiance of the Versailles treaty in 1935.
treaty between Germany and Japan promising a common front against communism
General Francisco Franco
In 1936 the Spanish Civil War began. Franco led the Fascists, fighting republican forces. In 1939, the Fascist forces won (with help from Italy and Germany). Franco ruled until his death in 1975.
agreement between Chamberlain and Hitler that Germany would not conquer any more land, and if did, would declare war
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
A secret agreement between the Germans and the Russians that said that they would not attack each other
(psychology) the configuration of smaller units of information into large coordinated units
Emperor of Ethiopia (r. 1930-1974) and symbol of African independence. He fought the Italian invasion of his country in 1935 and regained his throne during World War II, when British forces expelled the Italians. He ruled Ethiopia as an autocrat.
French leader of the radical socialists; accepted Hitler's terms for peace.
Line of defense built by France to protect against German invasion. Stretched from Belgium to Switzerland.
The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938.
U.S. Neutrality Acts, 1935-1937
legislation passed by Congress in 1936 and 1937 designed to keep the United States out of European conflicts, such as the Spanish Civil War
Mutual Assistance Treaty
In 1935, France and the Soviet Union created this in order to provide some support. However, they were always still suspicious of each other.
Prime Minister of Great Britain from -1940. Famous for appeasing Hitler at the Munich Conference.
an area in western Czechoslovakia that was coveted by Hitler
Rape of Nanking
infamous genocidal war crime committed by japanese military in Nanjing. started in 1937 and lasted a few weeks. japanese army raped, stole and killed prisoners of war and civilians
Hoover's secretary of state, who sought sanctions against Japan for its aggression in Manchuria
Abraham Lincoln Brigade
Americans joined this Russian-sponsored group to fight for the Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War
An outspoken radical who was deported after being arrested on charges of being an anarchist, socialist, or labour agitator.
Lost Generation writer, spent much of his life in France, Spain, and Cuba during WWI, notable works include A Farewell to Arms