The outer layer of Earth's surface is called the _____________________________.
What is the main source of groundwater?
rain and snow that seeps through the soil
What is chemical weathering?
when chemical in the rock dissolve causing it to crumble
What is the highest point on earth and how high is it?
Mt. Everest. 29,035 feet
What are the 3 types of erosion?
wind, water, and glacier
What is a continental shelf?
part of continent that extends underwater up to 600 miles
Describe the outer core of the earth?
melted iron and nickel
Internal forces cause the earth's plates to move ___________________ per year.
What is the widest diameter of the earth and how wide is it?
7,930 miles at the equator
Describe earth's inner core.
solid nickel and iron; extremely hot
How much of the earth's water supply is freshwater?
___________________ covers about 70% of the earth's surface.
Where do most of the earthquakes on earth happen?
ring of fire around pacific ocean
How far is earth from the sun?
93 million miles
Define water cycle.
regular movement of water from the ocean to air to ground and back to ocean.
What does Earth's atmosphere consist of?
78% nitrogen; 21% oxygen; 1% argon and other gases
What is a tsunami and what causes it?
large tidal wave caused by underwater earthquakes
part of earth where life is found
What are the 4 major types of landforms on earth?
plains, plateaus, hill, mountains
process that breaks rocks into pieces
Define continental drift.
theory that continents were once joined and have slowly drifted
What causes the sun's gravitational pull on objects in the solar system?
it's large mass
The natural features of the earth's land surfaces are called ______________________.
What is Pangaea?
huge supercontinent that existed millions of years ago
Where does most of the groundwater come from?
rain and snow that seeps through soil
What are terrestrial planets? Name them.
planted with solid, rocky crusts; Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
cracks in the earth's crust
What is the deepest part of the ocean and how deep is it?
Mariana Trench; 35,800 feet
wearing away of earth's surface
Each place on earth has its own physical features. It can be described in terms of its land, water, weather, soil and plant and animal life. Each place has its own human features.
What two factors must be included when the absolute location of a place is given?
Latitude and Longitude
What is human geography?
study of human activities their relationship to the cultural & physical environments
Name other subject areas a geographer might use?
Science, History, Economics & Sociology
What is G. I. S. and why is it important to geographers?
GIS processes and organizes the satellite images with other data collected through censuses, cartographers and so on. It is invaluable to urban planners, engineers and geographers.
What usually happens when people migrate from one area to another?
They move for better land, religious freedom and a chance to earn a better living.
Shape or physical features on the earth's surface
What are 2 differences between lines of latitude and longitude?
Latitude -measures distances North and South of the equator; Longitude Measures distances East and West of the Prime Meridian. Latitude- lines are parallel; Longitude- lines meet at the North and South Pole
List 3 and define the types of regions geographers use.
Formal region - defined by a common characteristic such as a product produced there. Functional region - central place and the surrounding area linked to it. Perceptual region - defined by the popular feelings and images rather than objective data
What purpose do geographers often use line graphs in their work?
Shows changes in two variables over a period of time.
Why is location an important geographic theme?
Every place on Earth can be located in both absolute and relative terms.
Define Prime Meridian.
Zero degrees longititude; runs through Greenwich, England
What does "spatial relations" mean?
Links that places and people have to one another because of their location.
What does the theme human-environment interaction mean?
It is the relationship between people and their environment
The study of weather and weather forcasting.
Describe a special purpose map.
Emphasizes a single idea about an area
What two line of latitude do geographers use as the boundaries of the tropics?
Tropic of Cancer 23 ½ degrees North. Tropic of Capricorn 23 ½ degrees South
What question does the geographic theme of place attempt to answer?
What is it like there?
Why do geographers use circle graphs?
They use percentage to show how the part of the whole changes
Define map projection.
Ways of representing the round earth on a flat surface
What is physical geography?
Study of Earth's physical features
What invention first revolutionized mapmaking?
Why do geographers often divide areas into regions?
To help interpret Earth's complexity; makes it easier to manage
What do general-purpose maps indicate?
Show wide ranges of information
Community of plants and animals that depend upon one another and their surroundings for their survival.
What is a map key?
Explains the symbols on a map
What are bar graphs used for?
Comes from the Greek word geographia which means a description of the earth.
What is the difference in absolute and relative location? Give an example of how each could be used?
Absolute is the exact spot at which the place in found the globe using latitude and longitude. Relative location is a location in relation to other places most commonly used. An Example of when you might use absolute - locating boats at sea or targets in the military; buried treasure. An Example of when you might use relative - giving directions to a stranger; telling a friend where you are
A mapmaker is called a
How do geographers divide the earth? Describe the grid system, and explain its most important features, such as the Equator and Prime Meridian.
Earth is divided into Northern and Southern Hemisphere by the Equator and into Eastern and Western Hemispheres by the Prime Meridian. The grid system is when patterns form as the lines of latitude and longitude cross one another.
Which direction do meridians of longitude go and what do they measure?
Lines of longitude go north and south. They measure the distance east and west of the Prime Meridian
What is Comstat?
Electronic map used by New York City to fight crime
Why are great circle routes used in planning airplane routes?
Shortest distance between any two points on the Earth's surface.
What mistake on the map regarding California remained on most US maps for over 100 years?
It had California as an island
_____________________________________was the 1st scientist to give scientific principals to cartography?
How do geographers present the information on a map?
They use map symbols
elevation above which its too cold for trees to grow
What is smog?
Haze caused by ultraviolet radiation and automobile exhaust
Why is there no vegetation in ice cap climate zones?
Temperatures are below freezing year round
Define normal lapse rate.
For every 1,000 ft. of elevation, the temperature drops 3.5° F
What is the weather like in a highland climate zone?
It varies with elevation
What is a rain shadow?
Dry area on the leeward side of a mountain
Weather patterns that an area typically experiences during a long period of time
What type of climate is found in the northeast and midwest United States?
How are winds named?
They are named according to the direction they come from
What is the climate zone of Louisiana?
What direction do ocean currents flow in the northern hemisphere and southern hemispher?
Clockwise in northern; counterclockwise in southern
Describe how water currents affect the coastal lands they pass.
Cool currents cool the land they pass, warm currents have a warming effect
Constant wind patterns are called
Explain the effect large bodies of water have on the climate of a coastal area?
Interior lands tend to have hotter summers and colder winters than land near large bodies of water because the water keeps the temperatures more constant in coastal areas.
Side of the mountain that is dry because the air dries out as it descends
What 2 factors cause the changing of seasons?
revolution and tilt
What is a mixed forest.
Has both evergreen and deciduous trees
When the sun is directly over the equator
The Russian word for forest is
Define natural vegetation.
Plant life that grows in an area if the natural environment has not been changed by people
Name the 4 types of mid-latitude climate zones.
Marine West Coast, Mediterranean, Humid Subtropical, and Humid continental
What are ocean currents and what causes them?
Rivers of seawater caused by rotation of the earth, moving air and differences in water temperature
Name the two types of dry climate zones.
desert and steppe
How much rain do desert regions usually get each year?
Less than 10 inches of rain per year
What are the four factors that affect the type of climate a place has?
Latitude, elevation, currents, and landforms
When the sun is directly over the Tropic of Cancer or Capricorn
The earth's ________________ causes day and night.
What 3 things interact to cause precipitation.
water, winds, and temperature
What is temperate climate?
climate that ranges from fairly hot in the summer to fairly cold in the winter
What are the 2 solstices
Summer Solstice - June 21 and Winter Solstice - December 22
Condition of the atmosphere in one place during a short period of time
What are the 2 equinoxes
Spring equinox - March 21 and Fall Equinox - September 23