Developmental Psych Exam Two

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Schemas

-Assimilation: selective, active
-Accommodation: key to developmental change
-Equilibration: balance, inborn, automatic response

Piaget's Postulations of Cognitive Development

-Internal:
equilibration
brain maturation
-External:
Social transmission-information the child gets from other people
Experience-the child's own opportunities to act on the world and to observe the results

Piaget's Stages

-Sensorimotor Stage: birth to 2 years
-Preoperational Stage: 2 to 7 years
-Concrete Operational Stage: 7 to 12 years
-Formal Operational Stage: 12+ years of age

Sensorimotor Period

-Primary Circular Reactions (simple repetitive actions organized around child's own body)
-Secondary (simple repetitive actions organized around external objects)
-Tertiary (deliberate experimentation with variations of previous actions)
-Object Permanence
-Stranger Anxiety

Infancy

-Memory: 2-mo, 3-mo, 6-mo (Rovee-Collier, crib mobile--1 da, wk, 2 wks)
-Imitation: Hand movements, Facial gestures, Deferred imitation

Preoperational Stage

-Egocentrism (centration) not Sociocentrism (decentration), the child sees the world from his or her own perspective
-Lack of Conservation: Number, Length, Quantity, Weight, Volume, Mass
-Centrism

Conservation

-The understanding that the quantity or amount of a substance remains the same even when there are external changes in its shape or arrangement
-Typically, children do not have this understanding until after age 5

Challenges to Piaget's Views of Early Childhood

-Conservation studies are generally supported
-Children as young as 2-3 have some ability to understand that another person sees things differently then they do
-Flavell - Perspective Taking
Level One - the child knows that another person experiences something differently
Level Two - the child develops a whole series of complex rules for figuring out what the other person sees or experiences
-Movement away from egocentrism helps development of understanding differences in appearance and reality

Influences on Theory of Mind Development

-Sibling Advantage-interactions with siblings may enhance theory of mind development
-Language skills can enhance or detract from the speed of theory of mind development
-Cross-cultural research with children of the Baka, and children from Chine, Europe, and India suggest theory of mind development may be universal

Shift from Preoperational to Concrete Operational Stage

-Perceived appearance to inferred reality
-Centration to decentration
-Attention to states becomes attention to transformation
-Irreversibility to reversibility

Piaget's View of Concrete Operations: The School-Aged Child

Reversibility
The understanding that actions and mental operations can be reversed

Class Inclusion
The principle that subordinate classes of objects are included in superordinate classes

Inductive logic
Reasoning from the particular to the general, from experience to broad rules

Deductive logic
Reasoning from the general to the particular, from a rule to an expected instance or from a theory to a hypothesis

Horizontal Decalage
Applying new kinds of thinking to new kinds of problems

Flavell

The thinking of middle childhood is... "an earthbound, concrete, practical-minded sort of problem-solving approach, one that persistently fixates on the perceptible and inferable reality right there in front of him"

Siegler's Approach to Concrete Operational Thought

A child may use many strategies each day to solve problems in different ways
Rather than a step-like process, it is more like a series of waves that overlap (Figure 6.8)

Constructivism Approach to Concrete Operational Thought

The idea that children are active thinkers, constantly trying to construct new strategies and more advanced understanding

Piaget's View of Formal Operations: Adolescence

-Systematic Problem Solving
Better use of strategies and more organization to problem solving
-Logic
Hypo-deductive reasoning
Deriving logical outcomes after considering hypotheses or hypothetical premises
Can lead to naïve idealism

Formal Operations

-Systematic problem-solving: Piaget's pendulum problem: vary length of string, weight of object, force of push, height of push
-Hypothetico-deductive reasoning (deductive logic)

Formal Operations and Adolescent Decision Making: Lewis

-New cognitive abilities alter the ways in which teenagers go about making decisions
--Older children are more focused on the future, on possibilities, and on options
--3/5th of adolescents in study did not show future orientation
---This suggests lack of use of formal operations by the majority of adolescents
-----Parts of the brain needed to connect hypothetico-deductive thoughts to everyday problems may not be fully developed
-----Expertise influences use of formal operations
-----Many daily problems do not require formal operations thinking

Post-Piagetian Research

-Increase in formal operations thinking between ages 13 and 15
-Cross-cultural consistency: is formal operational thinking universal?
-Siegler's wave model
-60% of Americans reach formal operational reasoning

Vygotsky

-Children construct knowledge
-Children learn best with scaffolding and with information presented in the zone of proximal development (ZPD)
-Learning can lead development
-Development cannot be separated from its social context
-Language plays a central role in mental development

Vygotsky's Socio-Cultural Theory: Cognitive Development is Social

-Proposes stages that represent a step towards the child's internalization of the ways of thinking used by adults in society
--Primitive Stage: animal-like knowledge
--Naive Stage: psychology stage-uses language but doesn't understand symbolic character
--Egocentric speech stage-uses language to solve problems
--Ingrowth Stage- internalized egocentric speech leading to logical thinking

Senses

Seeing
-Visual acuity: 20/400 at birth; discriminate colors by 1 month; normal by one year
-Tracking: Slow-moving then fast-moving
Hearing
-Auditory Acuity: better at birth than seeing
-Detecting Locations: infants turn towards sounds
Taste, smell, touch: All are present and grossly normal; touch is best developed

What infants look at: Haith's "Rules to Look By"

-Edges and high contrast at birth, inner details and figures by 2-3months
-Faces: Do infants prefer looking at faces?
-Attractive faces (Langlois, preference test, 3 months old)

Visual Cliff

Gibson & Walk (1960):
Visual Cliff
Depth perception:
6-14 mo olds won't cross visual cliff;
Kinetic cues
Binocular cues
Pictorial cues
3 mo olds flinch at looming
obj (Yonas & Owsley, 1987)

Listening

-Discriminate speech sounds:English, N.Am. Indian, Hindi--6 mo discr; lose ability by 1 yr. Pruning (Werker & Desjardins, 1995)
-Discriminate individual voices at birth: Mother's voice not father's (DeKasper & Fifer)
-Other sound patterns: 6 mo old recognize patterns in melodies (Trehub et al., 1984, 1985)

Intersensory Integration

-Develops (not automatic) by 6 months
-Has been documented at 1 month
-Piaget argues that this does not occur before 1 yr

Cross-Modal Transfer

-Approaching train: expect sounds to match by 5 months
-Person mouthing correct syllable
-Notice differences in bounce patterns of kangaroo and donkey

Object Perception

Support:
3 mo--possible; 4 1/2-5 1/2—not possible
Collision:
2 1/2 mo--expect object that isn't hit to stay still;
5 1/2 - 6 1/2 mo--predict larger object knocks it further
Unveiling:
9 1/2 mo--covered object could be large or small dog;
12 1/2 mo—recognize it can only be a small dog if the covered object appears small

Object Permanence

-Provides a bridge between studies of perception and early cognitive development
--Object concept is gradually constructed and applied to real-world interactions with objects over the first 3 years of life
--Object constancy and attachment may be linked
-Stages of development:
--St. 1-2 (0-4 mo) Out of sight, out of mind, but surprise if obj behind screen disappears
--St. 3 (4-8 mo) Visual but not manual search
--St. 4 (8-12 mo) Manual search with visible displacement
--St. 5 (12-18 mo) Invisible displacement
--St. 6 (18-24 mo) Mature searching; (cats reach st. 4; rhesus monkeys, chimps, st. 6)
-Zambian babies: similar to Western babies despite their lack of experience with objects (Goldberg, 1972)

Social Signals

-Social/emotional perception: pay attn by 2-3 mo.
-Depressed Mothers
-Social referencing: about 1 yr.
--Use nonverbal cues to identify cause of parents' emotional response
-Cultural similarities and differences: Facial expressions seem to have relatively stable meanings

Information Processing

-Processing capacity and efficiency
-Metamemory and Metacognition
-Memory Strategies: rehearsal, clustering, elaboration, systematic searching
-Expertise

Intelligence Simon-Binet

to identify children who might have difficulty in school

Terman

IQ=Mental age/Chronological age X 100
2/3 of children score between 85 and 115

Modern IQ Tests

-Stanford-Binet, 4th Edition
-Wechsler intelligence scales

Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children

Full Scale IQ score composed of:
-verbal comprehension index:best predictor of IQ
-perceptual reasoning index: visually presented, nonverbal; predicts 45% of IQ variance
-Processing speed index
-Working memory index
Helpful in determining a child's intellectual strengths and weaknesses

Wechsler IV Subscales

Verbal comprehension
-Similarities
-Vocabulary
-Comprehension
Perceptual Reasoning
-Block design
-Picture Concepts
-Matrix Reasoning
Processing Speed
-Coding
-Symbol search
Working Memory
-Digit Span
-Letter-Number sequencing

Changes in IQ Scores

Both maturational and experiential variables influence IQ scores
Secular trend (Flynn effect)
Historical shift upward of IQ Scores
Maturational variables changed due to health and nutrition improvements
Experiential elements increase due to environmental variables
Industrialization
Increased use of preschool attendance
More "testwise"
Sesame Street

Alternative Tests

Infants:
Fagan's Habituation Test (infancy): correlates well with intelligence during the preschool years
Bayley Scales of Infant Development: Psychomotor functioning, birth - 3 years of age
Kaufman: Preschool
Nonverbal tests: "Culture fair"
TONI
Considered equally valid
Achievement tests (vs. Aptitude)
Learning (MCAS) vs. Competence (IQ)
Norm vs. Criterion referenced

Stability of Test Scores

Low correlation between the Bayley Scales and later Stanford-Binet scores

By age 3, score similarities of IQ tests taken a few years apart are typically high (.80)
Children can show wide fluctuations
May reflect "bounce" or "rebound" - changes in response to specific life events

Reliability

the stability of a test score
Tend to be very stable

Validity

Whether a test is measuring what it is intended to measure - like school performance

What IQ Scores Predict

Correlations between a child's IQ and grades or other performance tests - between .45 and .60

Predictive relationships hold true within each social class and ethnic group

High intelligence
Associated with resiliency
More likely to complete high school and attend college

Low intelligence
Associated with adult illiteracy, delinquency, criminal behavior
May add to a child's vulnerability

Do not predict creativity, insight, "street smarts," or the ability to read social cues

Nature/Nurture IQ

Heritability: Behavior Genetic Techniques
Twin Studies, Adoption Studies, Consanguinity Method
Environment
Social class (fig. 7.2)
Family Environment: interesting/complex environment, emotionally responsive, talk to children, Vygotsky's ZPD, high expectations, give children room to explore
Early experience: earlier education is not necessarily better, ("the hurried child"), keep expectations appropriate, important because it's prior, responsive parenting, structure
Early intervention programs (Head Start): highly effective, the earlier the better, the longer the better
Cross-cultural differences
Asian-American: time, importance of achievement, quality of math instruction in school

Sternberg's Triarchic Theory

Practical Intelligence ("street smarts")
Analytical Intelligence (IQ, achievement)
Creative Intelligence

Gardner's Multiple Intelligences

Linguistic
Logical/mathematical
Musical
Spatial
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal

Language

Phonology
Semantics
Syntax
Pragmatics

Nonverbal Precursors

Crying (birth)
Cooing (1-2 mo)
Babbling (vowel-consonant combinations) 6-7 mo.
Jargon: syllables with sentence-like inflection
Gestures (pointing) 10 mo
Turn-taking

Verbal Development

One-word naming phase
holophrases (word/gesture combinations)
Two-word: pivot grammar/telegraphese
Contains nouns (more than anything else), also verbs, modifiers, leave out unnecessary words
Expressive (social)/referential (nouns) style
3 & 4 word sentences (2 1/2 yr)

Underextension

Use of a word for only one specific object or a single context
Suggests that children initially think of words as belonging only to one thing rather than categories

Overextension

The use of a single word for a category of objects or multiple contexts
More common during naming explosion
May reflect lack of vocabulary more than inability to discriminate

Pragmatics

The way in which children use language either to communicate or to regulate their own behavior
-Developed early
--Patterns of gazing at 18 months similar to adults
--2-year-olds adapt the form of language to the situation he is in or the person he is talking to is in
Children as young as 4 adapt language to improve communication with their intended audience

Observations about Language

Learning words: Naming/Grammar explosion
-Not a gradual process
-Naming explosion occurs between 16 and 24 months
-Grammar explosion occurs between 24 and 36 months
Expressive/Receptive Language
Bilingual Language Learning (meta-linguistic ability but later milestones) (Mind 2nd ed., #26)
Chimp Language Learning (can learn sign language but cannot say words and are not easily expressive or creative)

Vocabulary and the Grammar Explosion

Very strong correlation between vocabulary size and grammar explosion (.84)
Vocabulary size moves child to stage 2 sentences
-Average age 23 months
-More complex
-Use of plurals, past tenses, auxiliary verbs, and prepositions

Questions and Negatives

Child puts a wh word at the beginning of a sentence but doesn't put the auxiliary verb in the right place
Uses no or not without proper auxiliary verb placement

Overregularization

3 - 4 year olds apply the basic rules to irregular words
Learn a small number of irregular words
Learn to add ed to the end of words
Learn the exceptions last

Complex Sentences

Complex sentences emerge after children use inflections and negation.
Children first use conjunctions to connect two or more ideas
Major strides taken during 3 - 4

Fast Mapping

Ability to categorically link new words to real-world referents
Appears in preschool age

Word Learning with 3rd-5th Graders

Gains in derived words - words that have a basic root to which a suffix or prefix is added
-Requires a new shift in understanding language

What is expected in language development?

Every child learns at least one language
Learning a language doesn't depend on intelligence
Children are creative. They produce new, never-before-heard phrases.

Chomsky

universal grammar comes prewired in innate acquisition "device" (Language acquisition device, LAD)
Similarities across languages (prelinguistic sequence, 1- to 2- word; but not word order)
Sensitive period for language learning
Overregularization of rules for plurals and past tense

Noam Chomsky

Suggests learning language is built in
Extreme complexity of task
Children across languages develop similar steps and stages of language development

Dan Slobin

Every child is born with a basic set of fundamental operating principles for language making
Infants pay attention to sound rhythms
Focus on individuals sounds that they hear
Preprogrammed to pay attention to the beginnings and endings of strings of sounds
Rule seems to be "pay attention to stressed sounds"

Deaf Babies, Universals in Language Development

7-11 months
Babble
Simple gestures such as pointing (same age as hearing children)

12 months
First referential signs

Second Language Learning

Improves metalinguistic ability
Better executive processing on language tasks so learn new words easily
But...
Slower vocabulary learning
May be at risk for learning disabilities

Experience Matters Because

Skinner: Imitation and Reinforcement
Echoing/Expansion/Prompting
But..."goed," "footses"
Role of the environment (enrichment, poverty)

Newer Environmental Theories

Parental Stimulation: Effective parental stimulation increases vocabulary, sentence complexity, reading ability. The Sesame Street Effect.
-Talk to children often
-Read to them regularly
-Use a wide range of words
Poverty: the single largest predictor of poor stimulation for vocabulary
Children without adequate stimulation do not c-catch up later in vocabulary

Newer Environmental Theories

Infant-directed speech (motherese)
Higher pitched voice
Slower pace
Short, simple, concrete sentences
Repetition and expansion
Being read to may be one of the most crucial factors in developing language

Constructivist Theories

Melissa Bowerman
"When language starts to come in, it does not introduce new meanings to the child. Rather, it is used to express only those meanings the child has already formulated independently of language." Children learn new words when they can use them

Research supports the idea that broad cognitive understanding and language and grammar appear at the same time
-Delay in language usually means delay in symbolic play and imitation

Cross-Cultural Differences in Language Development

Research supports similarities across languages in children's early language development
-Prelinguistic phase seems identical in all language communities
--All babies cry, coo, babble and speak words at about 12 months
--One-word phrase seems to precede two word phrases

-Specific word order begins to differ in early sentences
--Pragmatic marker - a special kind of marker used by Japanese children which tells something about the feeling or the context of what is being said

Use of inflections is different in some languages

Expressive style
Early vocabulary linked to social relationships rather than objects
Referential style
Early vocabulary made up of names of things or people
These styles may help explain English-speaking children but are not demonstrated by children learning other languages
Neither style has an impact on later language development

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