Low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in water
Is a network or relationships among components that interact with and influence one another through the exchange of energy, matter or information
A system's output can serve as input to that same system, a circular process.
negative feedback loop
Output that results from a system moving in one direction acts as input that moves the system in the other direction. Input/Output neutralize each others effects, stabilizing the system
positive feedback loop
Rather than stabilizing a system, they drive it further toward an extreme. E.g. Can occur with the process of erosion, the removal of soil by water or wind.
Contains the rock sediment beneath our feet, in the planet's uppermost layers
Is composed of the air surrounding our planet
Encompasses all water, salt or fresh, liquid, ice or vapor in the surface bodies, underground, and in the atmosphere
Consists of all the planet's living organisms and the abiotic (nonliving) portions of the environment with which they interact.
Microscopic photosynthetic algae, protists, and cyanobacteria that drift near the surface
Tiny animals that consume phytoplankton
Process of nutrient overenrichment, blooms of algae, increased production of organic matter, and subsequent ecosystem degradation
All material in the universe that has mass and occupies space
law of conservation of matter
Matter may be transformed from one type of substance into others, but it cannot be created or destroyed
A fundamental type of matter, a chemical substance with a set of properties, which cannot be broken down into substances with other properties, There are 92 in nature and more than 20 others that have been artificially created
The smallest components that maintain the chemical properties of the element
Positively charged particles
Particles lacking electric charge
Atoms of each element that have a defined number of protons
A atom's nucleus is surrounded by negatively charged particles
Atoms with differing numbers of neutrons
Combinations of two or more atoms that bond together
A molecule composed of atoms of two or more different elements e.g. water and carbon and dioxide
Consist of carbon atoms joined by bonds with hydrogen and may consist of other elements
Lack carbon-carbon bonds
Organic compounds that combine to form long chains of repeated molecules, building blocks of life
Proteins, nucleic acid and carbohydrates, lipids are not polymers but are also essential to life, they are all large in size
Long chains of organic molecules called amino acids
Directs the production of proteins
The amount of time it takes for one-half of the atoms to give off radiation and decay
Electrically charged atoms
No chemical bonding, but is a mixture of substances (i.e., blood, ocean water)
Solutions have a pH less than 7.
Solutions have a pH greater than 7.
Solutions have a pH of 7 (i.e., pure water).
Contain only carbon and hydrogen, Make up fossil fuels,
The simplest hydrocarbon is methane (natural gas),
Can be a gas, liquid, or solid
Regions of DNA that code for proteins that perform certain functions
Molecules that promote chemical reactions
DNA and RNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid, carry the hereditary information of organisms
Atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Simple carbohydrates, 3-7 carbons long. Glucose: provides energy for cells
Used by plants to store energy, Animals eat plants to acquire it
A chemically diverse group of compounds grouped together because they don't dissolve in water Energy, cell membranes, structural support, and hormones
The basic unit of life's organization
contain a membrane-enclosed nucleus and various organelles that perform specific functions
Plants, animals, fungi, protists
Single-celled organisms lacking organelles and a nucleus
Bacteria and archaea
An intangible phenomenon that can change the position, physical composition, or temperature of matter
Energy of position
Energy of motion
Potential energy held in the bonds between atoms. Potential energy is changed into kinetic energy to produce motion, action, and heat.
first law of thermodynamics
Energy can change forms, but cannot be created or destroyed
second law of thermodynamics
The nature of energy changes from a more-ordered to a less-ordered state if no force counteracts this tendency
An increasing state of disorder. For example, burning a log of firewood transforms the log from a highly organized product into light and heat energy, gases, smoke, and carbon ash.
Produce their own food from the sun's energy. Green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. A.K.A Producers
The process of turning light energy from the sun into chemical energy Carbon dioxide + water + sun's energy is converted into sugars and high-quality energy.
Low-quality energy is turned into high-quality energy.
Organelles where photosynthesis occurs
Organisms that gain energy by feeding on others.Animals, fungi, microbes A.K.A Consumers
All organisms and non-living entities occurring and interacting in a particular area. Animals, plants, water, soil, nutrients, etc.
Conversion of solar energy to chemical energy by autotrophs
gross primary production
Assimilation of energy by autotrophs
Rate at which autotrophs convert energy to biomass
net primary production
Energy remaining after respiration, used to generate biomass. Available for heterotrophs
high net primary productivity
Ecosystems whose plants rapidly convert solar energy to biomass
Elements and compounds that organisms consume and require for survival. Stimulate plant production
Lack of nutrients can limit production.
Nitrogen and phosphorus are important for plant and algal growth.
Transitional zones between two ecosystems in which elements of each ecosystem mix
The study of how landscape structure affects the abundance, distribution, and interaction of organisms
Ecosystems, communities, or habitat form the landscape and are distributed in complex patterns (a mosaic)
Study the loss, protection, and restoration of biodiversity
Humans are dividing habitat into small, isolated patches.
Corridors of habitat can link patches.
The movement of nutrients through ecosystems
Where nutrients remain for varying amounts of time
Movement of nutrients among pools. Can change over time.
Describes the routes that carbon atoms take through the environment
Water moves from aquatic and land systems to air
Release of water vapor by plants
Condensation of water vapor as rain or snow returns water from the air to Earth's surface