Earth Science Chapter 3--4

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atomic number

The number of protons in a nucleus.

mass number

The sum of protons and the neutrons in the nucleus

isotopes

Atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers

valence electrons

the number of electrons in the outermost energy level

oxygen and silicon= what percent of the earths crust

75%

compound

a substance composed of two or more atoms of different elements

chemical bond

is the force that holds together the elements in a cimpound

covalent bond

a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

ionic bond

a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion

molecule

2 or more atoms held by covalent bonds

metallic bond

a chemical bond in which electrons are shared over many nuclei and electronic conduction occurs

chemical reaction

the change of one or more substances into other substances

homogeneous

particles cant be distinguished in a solution

acid

a solution containing a substance that produces hydrogen ions in water

ph scale goes 1-?

14

distilled water=

7

antacid=

10

ammonia=

11

drain cleaner=

13

base

a substance that produces hydroxide ions in water

most solids are _______ because the particles inside form regular geometric patterns

crystalline structure

thermal vibrations

at any tempertaure above -273 *C atoms move

evaporation

when a liquid reaches its boiing point and turns into a gas

plasma

highly ionized electrically conducted gas

condensation

when a gas cools and becomes a liquid

sublimation

when a solid goes to a gas

in order to be a mineral a substance has to be____&_____

naturally occuring, and inorganic

crystal

a solid with atoms arranged in repeating patterns

2 ways minerals form from

solution, lava

luster

measures how light reflects from the surface of a mineral, subjective

crystal form

how the particles inside a mineral form in patterns.

hardness

how easily a mineral can be scratched

mohs scale talc

1

mohs scale diamond

10

mohs scale gypsum

2

mohs scale calcite

3

mohs scale flourite

4

mohs scale apatite

5

mohs scale feldspar

6

mohs scale quartz

7

mohs scale topaz

8

mohs scale corundum

9

cleavage

how a mineral splits

streak

the color of a mineral in powder form

silicates

minerals that contain silicon, and oxygen

tetrahedrons

chain, double chain, sheet

carbonated

minerals that contain co3

oxides

minerals that contain oxygen and a metal

ore

a mineral that can be mined for a profit

gem

mined minerals which are valued for beauty

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