Paul of Tarsus
A Jew from Asia Minor that played the most influential role in the spread of Christianity. Paul never met Jesus but he had a vision one day of speaking to him. Executed because spreading of Christianity was a threat to the government.
Beginning in the 700s BCE, first rulers of Roman Republic and Empire; Laid the foundation for Rome and Roman civilization.
One of two officials who led the government in the ancient Roman republic.
Of the hereditary aristocracy or ruling class of ancient Rome.
An ordinary citizen in the ancient Roman Republic.
In ancient Rome, an official elected by the plebeians to protect their rights.
City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by the expanding Roman Republic in the third century B.C.E.
The three wars waged by Rome against Carthage, 264-241, 218-201, and 149-146 b.c., resulting in the destruction of Carthage and the annexation of its territory by Rome.
Brothers Tiberius and Gaius who tried to reform the Roman Empire by giving back Latifundias to the small farmers but were assassinated.
Large farming estates in ancient Rome. Enjoyed economies of scale.
Roman general and politician; he eliminated property restrictions for acceptance into the army and began to accept anyone who wished to join the Roman army. He made armies into private forces that became devoted to their generals.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
General elected consul in 88 B.C.E; Wanted to restore power to the Senate and aristocracy; Proved a ruler with strongest army could control Rome.
Roman general, statesman, and historian who conquered Gaul. Liberal in politics. Declared himself "emperor for life." Was assassinated in 44 B.C.E.
In 27 BC, he became the first emperor of Rome and took command, creating the Pax Romana—a 200-year period of peace. He ruled from 27 B.C.E. to 14 C.E.. During his reign, the Romans constructed many buildings and built roads, bridges, and aqueducts.
Founder and first king of Rome. Legend has it that he and his twin brother were rescued by a she-wolf.
The earliest written collection of Roman laws, drawn up by patricians about 450B.C., that became the foundation of Roman law.
Roman term for the "father of the family," a theoretical implication that gave the male head of the family almost unlimited authority.
Conservative Roman senator; Stoic philosopher; one of great orators of his day.
Slave, trained as a gladiator, who led a rebellion against the Roman army for slave freedom.
The Persian god embodying the ancient spirit of light of Mithraism, a Persian religion popular in the Roman Empire that exalted fraternity and loyalty, appealing to soldiers.
Monastic Jews who were living communally, apart from the world, about the time of Jesus. Wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Jesus of Nazareth
Prophet and teacher among the Jews; believed by Christians to be the messiah; executed c. 30 C.E.