The Great Compromise/Connecticut Compromise
Plan proposed by Roger Sherman, William Samuel Johnson, and Oliver Ellsworth that suggested combining the Virginia and New Jersey plans. There would be two houses, one house having representation based off of population, the other having representation based off of the state. Also included the three branches of government.
A compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for enumeration purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives.
Checks & Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power.
A form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states
People who feared the Constitution, thinking it gave too much power to the Federal Government
Federalists (political party)
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams; they firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
Founded in the early 1790s by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison; it favored states' rights and the primacy of the yeoman farmers and the planters over bankers, industrialists, merchants, and investors
The First Bank of the United States
Officially proposed by Alexander Hamilton, chartered by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791; the Bank was created to handle the financial needs and requirements of the central government of the newly formed United States
The Bill of Rights
Written by James Madison and ratified December 1791; guarantees basic personal liberties to all American citizens
AKA The Necessary and Proper Clause; clause in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution that gives Congress the right to make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers expressed in the other clauses of Article I
The constitutional provision that establishes the U.S. Constitution, U.S. Treaties, and Federal Statutes as "the supreme law of the land."
part of the first amendment stating that "congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion."
Free Exercise Clause
the First Amendment guarantee that citizens may freely engage in the religious activities of their choice
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders; in October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion.
Made by John Jay in 1794.
pros: withdrawal of British troops from American soil, gained access to West Indian markets, and expansion of American trade with British territories.
cons: restricted American trade with France and no compensation for slaves taken away by the British army.
Treaty of Greenville
(August 1795) Treaty between Americans and Shawnees and 11 other tribes that opened most of Ohio and part of Indiana to white settlement Result of Anthony Wayne having battled and defeated the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
Treaty of San Lorenzo
Signed with Spain in 1795, the Treaty of San Lorenzo (also known as Pinckney's Treaty) gave the U.S. unrestricted access to the Mississippi River and established the border between the U.S. and Spanish Florida.
Washington's Farewell Address. Its main points included: assuming leadership in the Western Hemisphere, developing its own trade, and not entering into permanent alliances with foreign nations, especially with Europe.
Hoping to avoid war with France, Adam sent peace commission to Paris, but French minister Taleyrand, sent 3 agents and said talks could begin after they received $250,000 and a $12 million loan. "millions for defense, not one cent for tribute."
The Alien and Sedition Acts
Passed by Federalist-dominated Congress.
1. Alien Enemies Act: outlined procedures to determine if citizens of a hostile country posed a threat to the US.
2. Alien Friend Act: president had the power to expel any foreign residents who he considered dangerous.
3. Naturalization Act: increased residency to become citizen from 5 to 14 years
4. Sedition Act: prohibited someone to say anything against a any measure of the US. to expire in 1801.
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
(1798) Written by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Declared state legislature had never surrendered the right to judge constitutionality of federal actions and they retained interposition to protect rights of their citizens.
African-American who contributed to the design of the capitol in Washington D.C. He was the first African-American who wrote a scientific book and taught himself calculus.
Idea that mothers before, during, and after the American Revolution would raise their children to maintain the belief of republicanism to make them ideal citizens for the new nation.
According to a legend, Angelic figures in traditional Iroquois garb appeared to Handsome Lake in 1799, and said that the Iroquis needed to reform their immoral ways or they would perish. His goals were to revive old Iroquois customs, affirm family values, and forsake alcohol.
In 1800, a literate black slave launches a major slave revolt in Richmond, but Governor Monroe quickly crushed the rebellion.
supporters of the stronger central govt. who advocated the ratification of the new constitution