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writing

The term prehistory refers to the period before

language skills

The most important development of Homo erectus was

They had brains roughly the same size as those of modern humans.

Which of the following statements is not true of Homo erectus?

They were hunters and gathers

Which of the following statements is true of the inhabitants of the Paleolithic Age?

general social equality

Many scholars believe society based on the importance of gathering edible plants

accumulate knowledge and transmit it to new generations.

With the development of languages, human beings were able to

agricultural transition.

Instead of the potentially misleading term agricultural revolution, many anthropologists prefer the term

slash and burn

One of the earliest known agricultural techniques was

one hundred million

The mastery of agriculture led to a population explosion. From a sparse population of around four million in 10,000 BCE, the global figure rose by around 500 BCE to around

pottery

The earliest of the three Neolithic craft industries was

copper

The earliest metal worked systematically by humans was

land

The ultimate source of wealth in any agricultural society is

"the land between the two rivers"

The word Mesopotamia means

Sumer

The first complex society was developed in the southern Mesopotamian land of

ziggurat

A Mesopotamian stepped pyramid was known as a

monarchy

After 3000 BCE all Sumerian cities were ruled by what form of government?

Sargon of Akkad

The creator of the first empire in Mesopotamia was

Hammurabi

What individual believed that the gods had chosen him to "promote the welfare of the people... [and] to cause justice to prevail in the land?"

Assyrians

The later Mesopotamian people who built a large empire based on a powerful army with iron weapons and who made extensive use of terror were the

Nebuchadnezzar

A Babylonian resurgence of power was led in the sixth century BCE by

bronze

Mesopotamian metalworkers discovered that if they alloyed copper and tin they could produce

Hittites

Iron metallurgy came to Mesopotamia from the

Sumerians

The first people in the world to use wheeled vehicles were the

traded extensively with peoples as far away as Anatolia, Egypt, and India.

Evidence shows that the Mesopotamians

slaves

in Mesopotamia, prisoners of war, convicted criminals, and heavily indebted individuals were the three main sources for

a strict patriarchal society

Mesopotamia developed into

grew increasingly worse over time

Conditions for women in Mesopotamia

cuneiform

The Mesopotamian style of writing was known as

Hebrews

Ethical monotheism was in the tradition of the

Phoenicians

The first simplified alphabet, containing only 22 letters, was created by the

Southern Russia

The original homeland of the Indo-European speakers was

Hittites

Horse-drawn chariots were first invented by the

Egypt

Which of the following societies began the custom of embalming to preserve the body for its life after death?

Nile

The Greek historian Herodotus called proclaimed Egypt the "gift of the...

Menes

Egypt was united around 3100 BCE by the conqueror

Old Kingdom

The largest Egyptian pyramids were built during the

Khufu

_________ is the largest of all the early African pyramids

less powerful than pharaohs of the Old Kingdom

Pharaohs in the Middle Kingdom were

Memphis

Around 3100 BCE the conqueror of upper and lower Egypt founded ________, a city that would serve as the capital for early Egypt.

external invaders who helped bring about the end of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom.

The Hyksos were

Hyksos

Horse-drawn chariots and bronze weapons were introduced into Egypt by the

Tuthmosis III

The most vigorous of all New Kingdom pharaohs was ______, who led his troops into Palestine and Syria and who even received tribute from the Mesopotamian city-states.

New Kingdom

The Egyptians were the most imperialistic during the

the Assyrian empire

In the mid-seventh century BCE Egypt lost its independence and became a part of

a woman who ruled Egypt as pharaoh

Hatshepsut was

Egypt

in which of the following societies did women enjoy the most freedom and opportunity?

arose independently

In Africa, iron metallurgy

Hieroglyphs

The Greek words meaning "holy inscriptions" refers to

Akhenaten

What pharaoh tried, unsuccessfully, to transform Egypt into a monotheistic society?

Osiris

The Egyptian god of the underworld was

modern day Nigeria

The Bantu originally came from around

Indo- Europeans

By spreading their language across a huge stretch of Africa, the Bantu played a role similar to that played by the

population pressures

The Bantu probably began their migrations because of

Aryans

Indo Europeans who began to migrate to northern India by 1500 BCE

Indra

God of War and Rain

Harappan

After 1900 BCE this urban society began declining probably due to ecological degradation

Jati

Sub-castes determined largely by one's occupation

Sati

A widow threw herself on her husband's funeral pyre

Karma

Sum of good and bad in a person's life

Moksha

Principal means to achieve this state was asceticism and meditation

Upanishads

Gathering before a sage to discuss religious issues

Shudras

Landless peasants and serfs

Varna

Refers to the major social classes (means color)

Brahman

Universal Soul

Rig Veda

A collection of 1028 hymns honoring the gods

Mohenjo Daro

This city was laid out in a grid, indoor plumbing, wealthy

Sanskrit

Sacred language of the Vedas

Punjab

The upper Indus River valley, straddles the modern borders between India and Pakistan

Xia

This dynasty made one of the first efforts to organize public life in China on a large scale; established the precedent for hereditary monarchical rule in China

Qin

Ended the period of warring states and brought China under tightly centralized rule, new dynasty founded in 221 BCE

Yangshao

Neolithic village at Banpo reveled this early Chinese Society (5000-3000 BCE)

Zhou

This dynasty's rulers relied on a decentralized administration (iron weapons)

Shang

This dynasty controlled the production of Bronze

Huang He

China's earliest dynasties founded near this river

Oracle Bones

Early Chinese writing found on these (more than 2000 characters)

Tian

Chinese term for heaven

Ao

One of the Shang dynasties earliest capitals (city wall stood 33 feet high)

Yu

Founded the Xia dynasty

Tikal

Mayan capital and most important political center

Mayan

invented the mathematical concept of zero

Olmecs

First society of Mesoamerica

Austronesian Peoples

They established hierarchical chiefdoms in the Pacific Islands, their languages can be traced to many Oceanic languages (arrived form Southeast Asia about 5000 years ago)

Lapita Peoples

The first Austronesian migrants to sail out into the Pacific Ocean and establish settlements in the Pacific islands; sailed as far as Madagascar

New Guinea

Turned to agriculture cultivated root crops, kept pigs and chickens, was connected to Australia until about 10,000 years ago

Australia

Human settlers here maintained hunting and gathering societies until large numbers of Europeans settled there in the 19th and 20th centuries

Popol Vuh

Outlines the traditional Mayan view of the creation of the world (Finally decided to use maize and water as their ingredients)

Chichen Itza

City located in the northern Yucatan Peninsula

Rubber People

The term Olmec means what?

Cambyses

This Persian emperor added Egypt to the empire

Xerxes

This Persian emperor not as tolerant as his predecessors; invaded Greece

Darius

The greatest of the Achaemenid Empire

Cyrus

Founder of the Achaemenid Empire

Persepolis

The magnificent capital of the Persian empire

Satrapies

Persian administrative units

Lydians

The major turning point in the rise of the Persian Empire was a victory against who?

Lydians

IDea of a standardized government-issued coinage came from the ________

Achaemenid

Cyrus founded this empire

Quanats

underground canals

Marathon

Greeks defeated the Persians at this battle

Seleucid

After the death of Alexander, the empire was divided into 3 empires...the main one was...

Ahura Mazda

Zarathustra described the "wise lord" (said the material world was a gift)

Angra Mainyu

Lord of evil spirits

Wudi

Most powerful Han emperor, known for imperial expansion and centralization

Liu Bang

Founder of the Han dynasty

wuwei

Disengagement from the affairs of the world

Confucianism

This philosophy believed in the proper ordering of human relationships

Laozi

Founder of Daoism

Dao

Means "the way"

Qin Shihuangdi

Chinese script was standardized during his reign, burned books, Great Wall

Zhou

The literary works of this dynasty became the core texts of traditional Chinese education

Han

This dynasty fostered cultural unity, prosperous, followed the Qin dynasty

Junzi

Confucian "superior individuals" took an active role in public affairs

Wang Mang

Known as the Socialist emperor

Mencius

Most influential post-Confucian philosopher, human nature essentially good

Analects

Cllection of Confucian saying and teachings

Legalism

This philosophy returned order to China after the Period of Warring states, collective punishment, clear and strict laws

Xiongnu

This group was the greatest threat to the Han dynasty

Chandra Gupta

He founded the Gupta Dynasty

Ahimsa

The Jain principle of non-violence

Kalinga

Ashoka fought his bloodiest battle against

Chandragupta Maurya

The first ruler to unify India

Ashoka

Issued the rock and pillar edicts, high point o f Mauryan success

Gautama

Founder of Buddhism

Mahavira

Founder of of Jainism

Alexander

His invasion of India in 327 BCE caused political chaos that led to the eventual unification of India

White Huns

One of the causes of the eventual collapse of the Gupta state was the invasion of the...

Jains

This religious group thought all living things had a soul

*Helots

*They rose up against the Spartans

Solon

Helped prevent Civil War in Athens (promoted democratic reforms)

Salamis

the decisive battle of the 2nd Persian War

Sparta

They won the Peloponnesian War

Plato

In the Republic he proposed that philosopher kings should rule

Pericles

Led Athens during its Golden Age

Athens

The leader of the Delian League

Socrates

He believed that honor was more important than wealth and fame

Aristotle

The personal tutor of Alexander the Great

Minoan

Earliest Greek civilization

Dorian

Lost the ability to read and write

Myceanean

Fought in the Trojan War

Plebeian

In Rome's early Republic, this group had more rights...

Patricians

Upper aristocratic class in Rome

Tacitus

The most important early Roman historian

Paul

Because he was a Roman Citizen, appealed his case to Rome, later executed

Latifundia

These were large plantation worked by slaves

Tiberius Gracchus

Tribune who called for land reform, was assassinated in 132 B.C.

consuls

They served as the executive branch in the Roman Republic

Etruscans

During its early history, Rome was dominated by the...

Marius

Created an army of common men who were loyal only to him (general)

Actium

Octavain's victory against Egypt in this battle restored order to Rome

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