government authority shared by national and local governments
"Necessary and Proper" clause
section of the Constitution allowing Congress to pass all laws "necessary & proper" to its duties, and which has permitted Congress to exercise powers not specifically given to it (enumerated) by the Constitution
the doctrine that a state can declare null and void a law that the state feels to be unconstitutional.
doctrine holding that the national government is supreme in its sphere, the states are supreme in theirs, and the 2 spheres should be kept separate.
a municipal corporation or municipality
applies to a certain city
applies to a number of cities that fall within a certain classification.
authorizes a municipality to exercise only those power expressly given or implied in its charter.
reverses Dillon's Rule and allows cities authority in any area except those expressly prohibited.
largest territorial unit between a state and city or town
state power to enact laws promoting health, safety, and morals.
McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)
the Constitution's "Necessary and Proper" Clause permits Congress to take actions when it is essential to a power that Congress has.
Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824)
The Constitution Commerce clause gives the national government exclusive power to regulate interstate commerce.
Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Rail Road vs. IL (1886)
states may not regulate interstate commerce
U.S. vs. Lopez (1995)
the national government's power under the commerce clause doesn't permit it to regulate matters not directly related to interstate commerce.
supreme or ultimate political power
a system in which sovereignty is wholly in the hands of the national government
confederation/ confederal system
a system in which the states are sovereign and the national government is allowed only to do what the states permit.
a system in which sovereignty is shared between the states and the national government.
a regime in which local units of government have a specially protected existence.
Restrictions on Powers of states
Guarantees by Federal Government to states
4:4, 4:3, 1:8, 5
Rules governing how states deal with each other