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CH. 1-7

Mexica (Aztecs)

Their empire stretched from coast to coast across Central Mexico, encompassing between 8 million and 25 million people. We know more about the Mexica's than any other native american society because of their large monuments and their Spanish conquerors well-documented interest in subduing them. They began their rise to prominence about 1325, when small bands settled on an island in Lake Texcoco (the site of the future city of Tenochtitlan the capital of the Mexican Empire. By the 1490s Mexicas ruled an empire that covered more land than Spain and Portugal combined. They worshiped the war god "Huitzilophochtli" Warriors were considered above everyone else even the priests.

Mexican Human Sacrifice

The priest would cut open peoples chests and cut out their heart to give to the bloodthirsty gods.

Tainos

Tainos is what the islanders called themselves on the island of San Salvador. In their language tainos means "good" or "noble." They would grow several crops including cassava, corn, cotton, tobacco etc. The tainos wore no clothing. (Read over pg. 30-31.)

Christopher Columbus

First to believe that sailing west across the Atlantic to Asia was possible. His explorations inaugurated a geographical revolution that forever altered Europeans' understanding of the world and its peoples. Columbus's landfall in the Carribean orginated a thriving exchange between the peoples ideas, cultures, and institutions of the Old and New Worlds. Went to sea when he was about 14. (Read over pgs 29-31.)

Columbian Exchange (pg 32)

A new sea bridge that allowed access and transportation between American and Europe. People would use this to exchange ideas, goods, people, cultures etc.

*From notes- occured in the 1500s, 1600s, and 1700s. Plants were exchanged between Europe and America.

Hernan Cortes (pg. 34)

Hernan was a 19 yr old spaniard seeking adventures and the chance to make a name for himself. He arrived in the New World in 1504. Fought in the conquest of Cuba. In 1519 the governor authorized Cortes to organize and expedition of about 600 men and 11 ships to investigate rumors of a fabulously wealthy kingdom somewhere midland.

*From notes- succeeded due to weapons, armour, horses, ships etc in which the Aztecs did not have.

Powhatan (pg 49)

the supreme chief of about 14,000 Algonquian Indians who inhabited the coastal plain of present-day Virginia, near Chesapeake Bay.

*From notes- Powhatan was the leaders of confederacy (pocahantus' dad) Their first attempt in 1587 In Ronoche N. Carolina was a failure. 20 yrs later they tried again in 1607 in Virginia and settled the southern colonies. (Ches, VA, MD)

Jamestown (pg. 52)

First building in the settlement. (one more time)
1609-1610 "starving time" cannabilism took place. (alfred packer)

Indentured servants (pg. 58)

About 80% of the immigrants to the Chesapeake during the 17th Century were indentured servants.
System (contract) that commited poor imigrants to 4-7 years of labor in exchange for passage to the colonies and food and shelter.

Bacon's Rebellion (pg. 64)

In 1676 Bacon's Rebellion erupted as a dispute over Virginia's Indian policy. Before it was over the rebellion convulsed Chesapeake politics and society leaving in its wake death, destruction, and a legacy of hostility between the great planters and their poorer neighbors.

John Winthrop (pg. 79)

To lead the emigrants, the stockholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company elected John Winthrop a prosperous lawyer and landowner, to serve as governor. In March 1630 eleven ships crammed with seven hundred passengers sailed for the Bay later more ships followed. Winthrop's fleet arrived in Massachuesetts Bay in early June.

Anne Hutchinson (pg. 84)

a devout Puritan woman steeped in Scripture and absorbed by religious questions. The mother of 14 children, Hutchinson settled into her new home in Boson 1634 and women gathered there to hear her weekly lectures on recent sermons.

*From notes- midwife, acted like a man, trial in 1637. She was banished b/c of religious despute and convicted of sedition.

Salem

1692, witch trials. About 20 people were convicted and executed. All but one were hung.

Pennsylvania

Middle colonies Pennsylvania was filled with Germans. More slaves were in penn and NY because of big farms. There was a combination of house slaves and slaves in big groups. When penn was founded it brought religious freedom to not only Quakers but to pretty much everybody. It was very accepting with an open door policy of ethnicites, religions, cultures etc.It was the only place that Native American indians moved to by choice. Founded by William Penn.

Ben Franklin (pg. 119)

Organized an outgrowth in society in 1769. He was a deist. Franklin, Thomas Jefferson and many others communicated with each other seeking both to understand nature and to find ways to improve society. Franklin's interest in electricity, stoves, and eyeglasses exemplified the shift of focus among many 18th Century colonists from heaven to the here and now.

*From notes- AKA "Mr. America" he was born in Boston. He experimented with electricity. He invented stoves, designed ships, water skiis, created hospitals, libraries, etc. Most importantly he was a Diplomat during the American Revolution.

Scots-Irish (pg.109)

outnumbered German immigrants. Hailed from northern-Ireland, Scotland, and northern England. Like the Germans, the Scots-irish were protestants but with a little difference. Unlike the Germans, the scots-irish tended to be militant presbys who seldom hesitated to bear arms or swear oaths.

Middle Passage (pg.113)

During the Atlantic Slave Trade. The middle passage was used to transport ships and ships of slaves across the Atlantic and then sell them to colonial merchants or southern planters.

*From notes- terrible journey. Tons died from illness's. Most slaves came from West coast of Africa (congo angola, nigeria, gold coast) a few taken from inland. In the 1700s there was a major increase in the amount of slaves taken.

Stono Rebellion (pg. 116)

In 1739 in Stono, South Carolina the slaves tried to rebel against the whites and killed many people but lost and learned that they had no chance of overturning slavery and very little change of defending themselves in any bold strike for freedom.

Great Awakening (pg. 120)

when some ministers set out to convert nonbelievers and to revive the piety that appealed more to the heart than to the head.

French and Indian War (pg.130)

AKA "The Seven Years War" in 1754-1763. War began in 1754 over conflicts regarding consented land in the Ohio Valley variously claimed by Virginians, Pennsylvanians, the French,and the Indians already living there. This wear was very costly which caused problems later down the road between British and America. The British won the war.

*From notes- English & USA vs. French & Native Americans...problems involved cost,food,weapons,transportation...competing for land, resources etc...Quebec and Montreal. Treat of Paris resulted in the French's loss and stated that the French military would be OUT of Canada.

Stamp Act (pg.139)

In 1765 George Grenville who was in his second year in office escalated his revenue with a program he started call the Stamp Act which created a major conflict between Britain and the colonies over Parliament's right to tax. The act imposed a tax on all paper used for official documents (newspapers, pamphlets, court documents, licenses, wills, etc.)

*From notes- Goal of the Stamp Act- to get out of debt from the war. Citizens were furious, tar and feathered the tax collectors. Grass roots protest. Conflict continues into the 1770s due to more taxes.

Samuel Adams (pg. 140)

Samuel Adams was a main contributor in the first organized resistance to the Stamp Act which began in Boston in August 1765.

*From notes- Samuel Adams would put together town meetings to talk about what the British gov. was doing with these on going taxes and they DID NOT like them. In the meetings they planned the Boston Tea Party to get the british rich.

Boston Tea Party (pg.145-147)

Aimed and planned to get the british rich. The Boston Tea Party was when angry citizens threw tons of tea over board into the harbor destroying alot of goods and profits.

Coercive Acts (pg. 146-147)

four laws meant to punish Massachusetts for destroying the tea. In America, those laws, along with a fifth one, the Quebec Act, were soon known as the Intolerable Acts. Read over lis of acts in book.

*From notes- laws closed the harbor until all tea was paid for, no town meeting could be help without the approval of the governor, punishments and excess soldiers to control the problem but soldiers didnt behave and instead of stopping the rebellion they caused it by sexually abusing the women.
-limited democracy
-soldiers were tried in court in England
-Quartering (let soldiers board in peoples homes) which was when they didnt behave.
-tea was never paid for which resulted in war.

Lexington and Concord (pg. 149)

During the winter of 1774 and 1775 Americans pressed on with boycotts. Optimists hoped to effect a repeal of the Coercive Acts; pessimists stockpiled arms and ammunition. READ IN BOOK!

Abigail Adams (pg. 159)

She was very impatient for independence and many other legal changes that would revolutionize the new county. She outlined obstacles and gave advice. She pushed for laws to be more generous and favorable for women. Abigail anticipated a more radical end to tyranny than did Thomas Paine.

Commen Sense (pg. 159)

Pamphlet issued in 1776 regarding independence. Thomas Paine was the author. The pamphlet sold more than 150,000 copies in a matter of weeks.

Trenton (pg.

The Battle of Trenton took place on December 26, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, after General George Washington's crossing of the Delaware River north of Trenton, New Jersey. The hazardous crossing in adverse weather made it possible for Washington to lead the main body of the Continental Army against Hessian soldiers garrisoned at Trenton. After a brief battle, nearly the entire Hessian force was captured, with negligible losses to the Americans. The battle significantly boosted the Continental Army's flagging morale, and inspired re-enlistments.

Loyalists (pg.165)

loyalists had strong cultural and economic ties to England; they thought that social stability depended on a government anchored by monarchy and aristocracy. Most of all they feared democratic tyranny. The most visible loyalists were called the "Tories" by their enemies.

Declaration of Independence (pg. 160)

On July, 4 the amendments to Jefferson's text were complete and the congress formally adopted the Declaration of Independence.

Saratoga (pg. 171)

An American attack on Burgoyne's forces at Saratoga cost the British another 600 men and most of their cannons. General Burgoyne finally surrendered to American forces on October 17,1777.

Yorktown (pg. 174-175)

For twelve days the Americans and French bombarded the British fortifications at Yorktown; Cornwallis ran low on food and amunition. British thought they were going to have back up troops coming in on ships but the French beat them there. A five day naval battle left the French navy in control of the Virginia cost. This was the decisive factor in ending the war because the french ships prevented any rescue of Cornwallis's army. READ OVER IN BOOK!!

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