formula that shows the arrangement of atoms in the molecule of a compound
the process of becoming vapor. Transformation from liquid to gas.
the temperature at which liquid turns into a solid when cooled. 0ºC 32ºF
rainfall made sufficiently acidic by atmospheric pollution that causes environmental harm. pH of below 5.6.
the mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units.
an electrical force linking atoms
Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, their covalent combinations make up most biological functions.
The steady-state physiological condition of the body. "just right"
Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
polar covalent bond
A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.
A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions.
Starting materials in a chemical reaction
The sharing of two pairs of valence electrons by two atoms.
A type of weak chemical bond that is formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atoms of a polar covalent bond in another molecule or in another region of the same molecule.
Elements indispensable for life but required in extremely minute amounts.
The attractions of a given atom for the electrons of a covalent bond.
Any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance by chemical reactions.
Atoms or groups that have gained or lost one or more electron, thus acquiring a change.
One of several atomic forms of an element, each with the same number or protons but a different number of neutrons, thus differing in atomic mass.
Molecules with (like water) an uneven distribution of charges in different regions of the molecule.
Material resulting from a chemical reaction.
The linking together of like molecules often by hydrogen bonds.
In a chemical reaction, the state in which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of reverse reaction, so that the relative coneovitrations and the reactants and products do not change.
A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons.
The clinging of one substance to another, such as water to plant cells by means of hydrogen bonds. Attraction of dissimilar molecules.
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, unique for each element and designated by a subscript to the left of the elemental symbol.
The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element.
The measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. Water has a high one because of the hydrogen bonding of surface molecules.
A solution that contains a weak acid and its corresponding base. It minimizes change in pH when acids or bases are added to the solution.
A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log[H+] and ranging in value from 0 to 14
A water molecule that has an extra proton bound to it; H3O+, commonly represented as H+
hydroxide (hydroxyl) ion
A water molecule that has lost a proton.
A single proton with a charge of 1+. The dissociation of water molecule leads to the generation of hydroxide ion and a hydrogen ion; in water H+ is not found alone but associcates with a water molecule to form a hydronium ion.
Having no affinity for water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water.
Having an affinity for water
A liquid that is a homogenous mixture of two or more solutions.
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
The dissolving agent of a solution. Water is the most versatile one.
The amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1g of a substance to change its temperature by 1ºC.