He revived antiquity. Stressed concepts of individualism, secularism. Credited Italians with the birth of Renaissance.
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.
Ruled Florence during the Renaissance, became wealthy from banking, spent a lot of money on art, controlled Florence for about 3 centuries
Italian diplomat and writer;Wrote The Courtier which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.
Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means.""Ruler should be loved but hated"
She used her wealth, intelligence, and power to support artists and scholars in Florence, Italy. Her palace was one of the most brilliant of the Renaissance.
Peace of Lodi
Made in 1454, this ended a war among Milan, Florence, and Venice. Cosimo de Medici made a lasting peace by having an alliance between Milan, Naples, and Florence on one side, and Venice and the Papal States on the other. Lasted for 40 years, and represents one of earliest appearances in European history of a diplomatic balance of power for maintaining peace.
Sack of Rome
May 5, 1527 - A military event carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, then part of the Papal States. It marked a crucial imperial victory in the conflict between Charles I of Spain Holy Roman Emperor, and the League of Cognac, (1526-1529) — the alliance of France, Milan, Venice, Florence and the Papacy.
The man who began the humanism movement and he believed that he was living the start of new era
Group of wealthy young Florentines, inspired by Petrarch, who used their classical education for the public good. Became diplomats, worked in chancellery office, wrote documents.
a system of philosophical and religious doctrines composed of elements of Platonism and Aristotelianism and oriental mysticism
An intellectual movement beginning in the fifteenth century that taught divinity is embodied in all aspects of nature
Pico della Mirandola
Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
Machiavelli's Florentine contemporary who wrote more accurate chronicles of Italian and Florentine history. He was a more sober historian less given to idealizing antiquity.
A pause in a line of verse dictated by sense or natural speech rhythm rather than by metrics.
Burckhardt vs. Burke
Burckhardt said that the Reformation was the rebirth of culture where as Burke says we were headed that way anyway.
$: Personal Income
Military: A king relied on feudal obligation.
Army: Nobles had strong independent power.
The term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who strengthened their monarchical authority often by Machiavellian means.
Louis XI (France)
$: Tax (Taille)
Military: Royal Army
Kings: Reduced Noble power absorbed Noble territory.
Henry VII (England)
$: Exploited royal finical resources.
Military: Royal Commissioners (appointed nobles to raise troops.)
King: Abolished Livery and Maintenance which means no more private armies.
Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain)
$: Inquisition gave them $ because of Control of Church when the Jews and Muslims left land w/ Spain.
Military: Royal Army
King: Nobles are out of Royal Commissions.
Medieval vs. New Monarchs
Medieval Monarch are dependent on their people, church, armies, money. Whereas New Monarchs are making themselves independent by suppressing other power, making the other power dependent on them.
the Inquisition that guarded the orthodoxy of Catholicism in Spain (especially from the 15th to the 17th centuries) (All Jews and Muslims exiled)
16th century Austrian Dynast that held the title of HOLY Roman Emperor and was powerful for a time, giving money and patronage to many arts, but failed due to religious tensions.
The prince that made Moscow the new capital of Russia, and he overthrew the Mongols that were dominating Russia.
Siege of Constantinople
1453 Mehemet wanted this city it was the last piece of the Byzantine empire...the siege the city for 51 days with a force of 100,000 men...used mighty cannons to knock down walls and dragged ships across land block people off
The leader of the Czech religious reforms, and the spiritual founder of the Protestant reformation in the 1500's. He was convicted by the Council of Constance for heresy.
pope remembered for his unsuccessful attempt to lead a crusade against the Turks (1405-1464). Loved war
Rebuilt St.Peter's Basilica; Arts; Turned Rome into the cultural center of the world; excommunicated Luther
Northern Humanists. Focused on Early Christianity. Thought that scholars had a negative influence on the church. <3 education. "To Change society you must first change those in it"
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther. he wrote The Praise of Folly, worked for Frobein and translated the New Testament from Greek to Latin(1466-1536)
He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a communal ownership society . People reward based on needs; King Henry VII criticized.
Spanish arch bishop who used Christian Humanists to reform his church.
A Catholic monk and theologian who noticed big differences between scripture and Church practices. He brought the public's attention to the hypocrisy he saw among high church officials, first with the 95 Theses, and then with many other written works. German princes supported and protected him, because freedom from the Catholic Church would mean freedom from the taxes, tax exemptions, and power the Church held over them. Pope Leo X and Charles V ordered him to recant at the Diet at Worms, but he refused.
Justification by Faith
Martin Luther's concept that faith alone is enough to bring salvation
Priesthood of all believers
Luther said/realized that everyone should follow their calling and find their own faith through scripture, which meant that no one could achieve a higher level of spirituality because of a church position.
Edict of Worms
When Charles V exiled or outlawed Luther from The Holy Roman Empire or any of it's other lands.
friend of Martin Luther, he wrote the Confessions of Augsburg, an attempt to unite Lutheran and Catholic princes that failed. The statements made did become the traditional statement of the Lutheran Church.
This was the revolt that occurred in Germany where the peasants rebelled alongside the new Protestant thought. They failed when Luther decided they were wrong at the mercy of loosing the German Princes as followers.
The Holy Roman Emperor, ruler of Habsburg in Austria and Germany, who was a great rival of Francis I, king of France. Milan was part of the Holy Roman Empire when Francis I invaded it, so Charles V was forced to send assistance. Thus, the Hapsburg-Vallois wars began. Because of all this drama he never got around to taking LUTHER down.
"Cuius Riegio Eius Religio"
" Whoever's Region is their Religion"
King of France in the 16th century; regarded as Renaissance monarch; patron of arts; imposed new controls on Catholic church; ally of Ottoman sultan against Holy Roman emperor.
Suleiman the Magnificent
The most famous Sultan of the Ottomans, Suleiman the magnificent led the Ottomans into a golden age in 1520-1566. He was a brilliant war general and took the Ottomans on to conquer areas of eastern Europe and a much larger portion of the middle east. He improved their government substantially and assumed the role of absolute power.
protestant alliance formed by Lutherans against the Holy Roman Empire, An alliance is created between Norther German Lutheran princes and the Fench King Henry II (a Catholic) to revive the war in 1552.
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
Book of Common Prayer
helped unite the Church of England with prayers and Hymns
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who was Queen of England from 1553 to 1558. Went back to Catholicism
Queen of England from 1558 to 1603, Reestablished Protestantism as the state religion of England and she led the defeat of the Spanish Armada.
written in 1563, this defined the rules of the Anglican Church. The document followed Protestant doctrine but still accomodated for other English, except the Puritans.
Mary Queen of Scots
The relative and heir of Elizabeth. Queen of Scotland and full name is Mary Stuart and known Catholic. She became the queen of England and in 1568, she escaped the problems in Scotland and flew to England to have the throne. She plotted with Philip II's ambassadors to kill Elizabeth and seize the English throne. The mother of James I, and she delayed the plans of Philip II of Spain to invade England and force a Catholic ruler on the English citizens. She signed the Scottish queen's death warrant. In 1587, Mary was beheaded.
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England.
He led the Swedish barons to overthrow Christian II of Denmark out of leadership of the Scandnavian kingdoms. He later became king of independant Sweden and established the Lutheran Church in Sweden. The Swedish Lutheran National Church had been created, to ensure the loyalty of the populace and clergy to the crown.
(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.
conference between Luther and Zwingli regarding differences in their belief of Protestant vs. Christianity
Appealing to Adults, and peasants. No one should feel pressured to accept the bible. Priests should be elected. All people are equal. Separation between Church and state.
Pacifist leader of the Anabaptists who continued the movement in northwestern Europe, followers known as Mennonites. Made Jerusalem Perfect for when Christ would arrive (Crazy).
This French theologian was the leading French Protestant Reformer and very important to the second generation of the Christian Reformation. He deeply influenced Protestantism elsewhere in Europe and in North America. The Calvinist form of Protestantism is has had a great impact on the development of the modern world, and included the Huguenots. Two Sacraments: Baptism was a sign of decrease of sins. The other, The Last Super- Jesus was there in spirit.
(theology) being determined in advance
Written by John Calvin that defines organization of the church and the relations between the political and religious powers in Geneva
Katherine Zell (German)
married to prominent reformer Matthew Zell of Strasbourg. She scolded minister for speaking badly of another
Ignatius of Loyola
Spaniard and Roman Catholic theologian and founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits).
Teresa of Avila
(1515-1582) Spanish Carmelite nun and one of the principal saints of the Roman Catholic Church; she reformed the Carmelite order. Her fervor for the Catholic Church proved inspiring for many people during the Reformation period.
100% to the Papacy. Continued Papal practices. Brought in the Council or Trents and said that there was corruption in the Clergy.
Council of Trent
1545- 1563; series of meetings
-reason of it: to internally reform the Church body this was done by: selling the Church office and indulgences were both forbidden, the local bishops authority was strengthened (they were in charge of various dioceses), the priests were better dressed and educated and celibate and more involved with in the Parish they were more active
Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poese and compression of space. EL GRECO: From Crete forms pain and is a church painter.
After Mannerism. elaborate an extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century
French family who worked to control Francis II. Family members were members of government and religion such as Duke and Cardinals. The family was known for being militants (agressive)
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Six week nation wide slaughter of Huguenots. Occurred when Huguenot nobles were in Paris attending the marriage of Catherine's dughter to a Huguenot prince, Henry of Navarre.
Catherine de Medici
wife of Henry II, influenced her sons after the end of there father's rein. She placed an alliance with the ultra-Catholics (the militant Catholics), which was led by the second most powerful family in France, The Guise Family. She permitted the Guise Family their own independent army,which they would use to take out the other religions residing within the French Borders. This led to the civil wars in France and also the St. Bartholome's Day Massacre.
War of the Three henrys
This was the last of the wars that occurred over the religious differences in France, between the Catholics (Henry III of France and Henry of Guise) and Protestants (Henry IV). Henry III murders Henry, Duke of Guise. Henry Navarre joins with Henry III
Edict of Nantes
Grants Religious Freedom in france (1598)
King of Spain 1556-1598
Spanish greatness politically and culturally
Ruler of Spain, Netherlands, Part of Italy, and the New World
Powerful Central Figure
Aim: Dominant power in Europe
Lots of debt
Battle of Lepanto
a naval battle fought between a Spanish and Venetian fleet and the German navy. The Spanish won. The battle meant that European navies ahd surpassed the Muslims. The Turks could no longer challenge Europeans on international routes.
William of Orange
"William the silent"
resisted Phillip II rule in Spain
wanted to unify the Netherlands
The Pacification or Ghent (A doctrine to unify all provinces Respect religion and demand troops be withdrawn Didn't last)
The Spanish Threatened Orange with army
Union of Utrecht
The union created for the Netherlands that granted their independence against Spain
the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power. Were relying on god to win.
Thirty Year War
a religious war between the Catholics and Protestants, which resulted in the political restructuring of Europe and the development of nation states - the Dutch Republic, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, granted religious freedom in many parts of Europe and encouraged the secularization of government.
Battle of White Mountain
Fought near Bohemia; Big victory of Hapsburgs over the Protestant Union and allowed constitutionalism to be replaced by authoritarian government in Bohemia
Edict of Restitutions
This new law decisively cut down the number of inexperienced monks.
joins Thirty Years' War in 1629, king of Sweden, Protestant leader, stands up for fellow Protestants, military genius, wins a lot for Protestant team; supported by Richelieu, who wants to end Hapsburg power; killed in 1632 at battle of Luetzen
Battle of Rocroi
french defeat of spanish army marked final collapse of french military power. people thought no wars no taxes
Peace of Westphalia
This was the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War that recognized the independent authority of over three hundred German principalities