Apes ch.2

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Culture

Set of knowledge,beliefs, and learned ways of life of a group.

Worldview

Looking at the world under the influence of setting and culture

Ethics

A groups set of moral principles and their interpretation of right and wrong

Relativists

Those who believe moral principles are always dependent on the particular situation.

Universalists

those who believe that some fundamental ethical principles are universal and unchanging. In this vision, these principles are valid regardless of the context or situation

Ethical standards

The criteria that help differentiate right from wrong

Anthropocentrism

the belief that humans hold a special place in nature; being centered primarily on humans and human affairs.

Biocentrism

the belief that all creatures have rights and values; being centered on nature rather than humans

Ecocentrism

Moral principle that regards the ecosphere as the most important being in existence in an attempt to redress the imbalance created by anthropocentrism

Preservation conservation

Preservation states that we should protect our environment in a pristine, unaltered state. Conservation says we should put natural resources to use but that we have a responsibility to manage them wisely.

Deep ecology

Well-being and flourishing of all life have intrinsic value; richness and diversity of life contribute; may involve decrease in human population; humans don't have the right to reduce life

Ecofeminism

a pluralistic, nonhierarchical, relationship-oriented philosophy that suggests how humans could reconceive themselves and their relationships to nature in nondominating ways as an alternative to patriarchal systems of domination

Environmental justice

A recognition that access to a clean, healthy environment is a fundamental right of all human beings

Economics

the study of how people seek to satisfy their needs and wants by making choices

Economy

frugality in the expenditure of money or resources

Goods

tangible products that we use to satisfy our wants and needs

Services

actions or activities that one person performs for another

Subsistence economy

a type of economy in which human groups live off the land with little or no surplus

Capitalist market economy

an economy in which buyers and sellers interact to determine which goods and services to produce, how much of them to produce, and how to distribute them

Centrally planned economy

economic system in which the central government makes all decisions on the production and consumption of goods and services

Mixed economics

have a combination of both private and goverment ownership and control of the means of production

Classical economics

the idea that free markets can regulate themselves

Neoclassical economics

an approach to economics based on supply and demand which depends on economic agents operating rationally based on available info

Cost benefit analysis

economic model that compares the marginal costs and marginal benefits of a decision

Externalities

indirect or unintended consequences imposed on society that may not be understood or anticipated

External costs

costs associated with quality failures uncovered after products reach customers.

Affluenza

unsustainable addiction to overconsumption and materialism exhibited in the lifestyles of affluent consumers in the united states and other developed countries

Ecological economists

hold the view that economics is a sub-system of the Earth and that resources, goods, services, and money flow impact not only homes and businesses but all of Earth's systems

Steady state economy

characterized by low birth and death rates, use of renewable energy sources, recycling of materials, and emphasis on durability, efficiency, and stability.

Environmental economists

tend to agree with ecological economists that economies are unsustainable if poplualation growth is not reduced and resource use is not made more efficient

Gdp

Gross Domestic Product- the total market value of all final goods and services produced annually in an economy

Gpi

GPI: Genuine Progress Indicator= GDP + Benefits not included in market transactions (ie volunteering) - harmful environmental and social costs

Non market values

Values not included in the price of a good or service.

Contingent values

surveys people regarding their willingness to pay for a good or service such as hiking opportunities or air quality

Market failures

situations in which the market does not lead to a desired result

Ecolabeling

serves to tell consumers which brands use environmentally benign processes

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