List and explain the issues within the church which had led to the reformation
simony- the selling of church offices
immorality- being immoral
nepotism- favoritism to relatives (putting them in high-up positions)
clerical ignorance- the uneducated cleric of the church
pluralism- holding several offices at once
absenteeism- holding several offices at once, but not paying attention to duties
decline of church prestige- new teachings fro Wycliffe, Hus, Conciliar Movement
Selling of indulgences- to get money to pay for clerical extravagance, the Catholic Church would sell to pardon one of their sins.
Author of Imitation of Christ. It encouraged to model themselves after Christ, and was the basis for th faith of the brethren of the Common Life.
A German Augustinian friar who launched the 26th century Protestant Reformation Friar, who on a pilgrimage, saw corruption in the Catholic Church, and formed new opinions. He preached the idea of solas scriptura. His work includes the 95 Theses, and the German translation of the Bible.
The son of Philip of Burgundy and Joanna of Castile. He inherited, Spain, New World possessions, Spanish dominions in Italy, Sicily, and Sordinnia, Hapsburg lands in Austria, Southern Germany, the Low Countries, and Franche-Comte in east-central France. He was the last medieval emperor. Was Christian, wanted to return it, became imperial, and was considered the most powerful ma in his time.
Diet of Worms
A first assembly of the Estates if the empire set by 21 year old emperor, Charles V. IT most importantly dealt with the Protestant Reformation and Martin Luther
Sack of Rome (1527)
troops of the roman empire charles v sacked rome, directly challenging the power of the catholic church and helping to advance protestantism in europe. the siege also marked the virtual end of the italian renaissance, and in the eyes of some historians, the end of the hgh renaissance.
swiss hmanist and admirer of Erasmus, he introduced the reformation to switzerland.
The Colloquy of Marburg
summoned in 1529 to unit e Protestant opinion, and failed to resolve the differences
What new answers to old questions were provided by Luther?
People are saved by faith only (solas fide)
Religious authority lies in scripture alone (solas scriptura)
The church is every believer
The highest orm of Christian life is any vocation.
There are only three sacraments: Baptism, Penance, and Eucharist
Transubstantiation vs. Consubstantiation
Catholics believe that the bread and wine becme the atual body and blood of Jesus Christ, while Luther believed that Jesus Christ is present (The Rel Presence) in the bread and wine.
Treaty of Arras
Declared French Burgundy a part of the kingdom of France
The war between the French and Spanish that was settled in 11559 when the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis was signed. It was a costly war won by the Spanish
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be on the rulers beliefs.
Christin denomination that believes in predestination
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed his religion in Geneva.
Belief that only adultss could make a free choicce about religious faith, batism, and entry into teh Christian community. Consdered extreme.
Henry VIII - Act of Restraint of Appeal, Act of Supremacy
King of England from 1509 to 1547, his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the Pope, England;s break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. He established the Church of England in 1532. Acted in Restraint of Appeals by stopping people from appealing to the Pope about what he did. He made himself head of the church in order to annul his marriage by the Acts of Supremacy
(Book of Common Prayer) Henry VIII's son and successor who saw the continuation of the growth of the Church of England
Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, and wife of Philip of Spain. She was devoutly Catholic and took to executing Protestants, hence the nickname, Bloody Mary.
Elizabeth I - Elizabethan Settlement
The last of the Tudor Dynasty. She was not a religious extremest, but a politique. She made the Elizabethan Settlement, which required outward conformity to the Church of England and uniformity of all ceremonies.
A Scottish theologian who dominated the movement for reform in Scotland.
The reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the reformation reaffirming the reneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)
Catholic Reformation - Council of Trent, Jesuits, Holy Office
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in responce to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline. The Council of Trent helped thie reform movement by establishing a meeting to condemn MArtin Luther's teachings, and restablish their own teachings. The Jesuits worked with this movement by trying to conform others to Catholicism. The Holy Office, was part of the Inquisition, that was part of the Church and was charged with heresy for cruely trying to convert.