# Research quiz two

## 39 terms

### Theoretical

concerned with developing, exploring, or testing theories

### Empirical

based on direct observations and measurements of reality

### Probabilistic

inferences based on probabilities

### Causal

interested in what leads to what (cause and effect)

### types of studies

1. descriptive 2.relational 3.causal

### descriptive study

designed to describe what is going on or what exist

### relational study

looks at the relationships between two or more variables

### causal study

designed to determine whether one or more variables cause or affect one or more outcome variables. only RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED studies can demonstrate a cause-effect relationship.

### what type of study is this; what proportion of WCU students like chocolate, strawberry, or vanilla ice-cream

descriptive study

relational study

causal study

### ways to study time in research

1.cross sectional 2.longitudinal

### cross sectional study

takes place at a single point in time

### longitudinal study

takes place over time; measurement occurs on at least two separate occasions

cross sectional

longitudinal

### types of relationships

1.coorelational 2.cuasal

### correlational relationship

two variables perform in a synchronized manner

### causal relationship

two variables are not only in correspondence, but one causes the other

### no relationship

one variable does not cause a change in the other (flat line)

### positive relationship

LINEAR. high values on one variable are associated with high values on the other

### negative relationship

LINEAR. high values on one variable are associated with low values on the other

### curvilinear relationship

NONLINEAR. a relationship that changes over the range of both variables. (slopes down, then back up)

### variable

any observation that can take different values. (gender)

### attributes

a specific value on a variable. they can be qualitative (female and male) or quantitative (rate 1-5) or (1 for male and 2 for female)

### types of variables

1.independent 2.dependent

### independent variable

what you (or nature) manipulates, which lead to a change in something else. eg. a treatment

### dependent variable

is affected by the IV. what is measured. the effects or outcomes

### pick out the IV and DV; The perception of lexical tone contrasts in Cantonese children with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

the IV is SLI (manipulated by nature) to have attributes of with and without SLI. the DV is perception of lexical tone

### null hypothesis

The hypothesis that describes the possible outcomes other than the alternative hypothesis. eg. Eating chocolate is not related to skin smoothness. always has the word NOT.

### alternative hypothesis

A specific statement of prediction that usually states what you expect will happen in your study

### two tailed hypothesis

does NOT specifiy a direction. alternative at both tails of the bell curve, null in the middle

### one tailed hypothesis

specifies a direction. null at one tail of the bell curve, alternative at the other.

### types of data

1.qualitative 2.quantitative

### research fallacies

1.ecological fallacy 2.exception fallacy

### ecological fallacy

mistaken conclusions about an individual based on group data. eg. all asian are good at math.

### exception fallacy

researching a group on the basis of exceptional cases. racism. eg. I once saw a bad women drive, so im going to research this and prove all women are bad drivers.

### hypothesis A

null vs. alternative

### hypothesis B

one tailed vs. two tailed