APES Chapter 2

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Culture

A society's knowledge and values

Worldview

One's perception of the world based on culture and personal experience

Ethics

Study of good and bad; right and wrong

Relativist

Person who believes ethics vary between society's and even individuals

Universalist

Person who believes ethics should be standard throughout the world

Ethical Standards

Details that draw the line betweeen right and wrong

Environmental Ethics

Application of ethics between human and the rest of the environment

Anthropocentrism

Human-centered view about the environment

Biocentrism

View based on the impact of all human and nonhuman things

Ecocentrism

View based on the impact of the whole ecosystem

Preservation Conservation

Preservation- We should protect the environment by not altering it
Conservation- Use of natural resources in combination of managing that use

Deep Ecology

Based on realiztion that we are part of nature

Ecofeminism

Argues that a male-dominated society has been the cause of social and environmental problems

Environmental Justice

Fair treatment of all people with respect to protecting the environment as well

Economics

The study of using scarce resources to provide goods and services in demand

Economy

Social system that converts resources into goods

Goods

Material commodities made from resources adn bought by individuals and corporations

Services

Work done for others in the form of business

Subsistence Economy

An economy where people meet all of or most of their needs directly through nature

Capitalist Economy

Goods and services are produced depending on demand

Centrally Planned Economy

Government determines in a top-down manner hot to allocate resources

Mixed Economics

Private markets where governments still intervene

Classical Economics

The society will benefit as a whole if people are free to pursue their own economic self-interest in a competetive marketplace

Neoclassical Economics

Examination of psychological factors underlying consumer choices

Cost-Benefit Analysis

Costs of an action are totalled up and compared to the benefits of the action

Externalities

Costs or benefits of the transaction that involve people other than the buyer or seller

External Cost

Negative externality

Affluenza

The way material goods frequently fail to bring satsifaction to the consumer

Ecological Economists

Believe that civilizations do not overcome their environmental limitations

Steady-State Economics

Economies that do not grow and do not shrink

Environmental Economists

Believe that we can overcome these changes and maintain sustainability within our current economic system

Gross Domestic Product

The total monetary value of final goods and services an economy produces each year

Genuine Progress Indicator

Calculation of positive contributions subtracted by negative impacts an economy puts out

Nonmarket Values

Values not included in the price of a good or service

Contingent Values

How much people are willing to pay to protect or restore resources

Market Failure

Markets fail when they do not take into account the positive benefits an environment can provide, and when they do not reflect on the negative effects the economic activity can have

Ecolabeling

To decipher which brands use environmentally benign processes

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